Affiliations: [a] NHS Bolton Foundation Trust Bolton, Bolton, UK | [b] Elective Orthopaedic Department, Bolton One, Bolton, UK | [c] School of Sport, Tourism and Outdoors, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK
Abstract: Cauda Equina Syndrome (CES) is a well known condition where early detection is paramount. The new onset of bladder and bowel dysfunction, sexual dysfunction and saddle anaesthesia are commonly used as clinical indicators of possible CES. Although the presence of these symptoms alongside LBP should always be taken seriously, the causes of these individual problems are multifactorial. Many of the ‘other’ factors are frequently seen within the general and LBP population and commonly complicate the clinical picture. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the different factors that may lead to the development of bladder and bowel dysfunction, sexual dysfunction and/or saddle anaesthesia. It is hoped that improved knowledge of these reasons may ensure comprehensive subjective questioning of LBP patients.