Affiliations: [a] Pôle Digestif, Hôpital de l'Archet, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, 151 route de Saint-Antoine, 06200 Nice, France. e-mail: email@example.com
| [b] Faculté de Médecine, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice, France | [c] INSERM U907, Nice, France
Abstract: Lipids are indispensable in artificial nutrition, not only because of their high energy density that allows a volume reduction as well as a limitation of carbohydrate provision, but also because they reduce osmolarity of the formulas, provide essential fatty acids, enhance the bio-availability of fat-soluble vitamins and because of their pharmacological properties, including effects on inflammation and the immune response. First generation formulas in parenteral nutrition are based on soybean/safflower oils. New generations include olive oil, medium-chain/structured triglycerides and fish oil. Their respective indications are not clearly defined, but are a basis for individualized nutritional support. Recent ESPEN guidelines in enteral and parenteral nutrition provide useful information on their use in specific situations.