Affiliations: [a] U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, 2420 2nd Avenue North STOP 9034, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9034, USA. e-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Evaluation of human body composition in vivo remains a critical component in the assessment of nutritional status of an individual. Whereas traditional measurements of standing height and body weight provide information on body mass index and, hence, the risk of some chronic diseases, advanced technologies, such as dual X-ray absorptiometry, air displacement plethysmography and various forms of bioelectrical impedance analysis enable the determination of soft tissue composition (fat and lean) as well as bone. This review summarises the physical bases of these methods and critically evaluates their accuracy in observational and interventional studies. It also discusses a new approach, bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, which assesses the hydration status of an individual, and includes pertinent examples of its novel applications in clinical nutrition.
Keywords: Dual X-ray absorptiometry, Body volume, Bioelectrical impedance, Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, Hydration status