Department of Agroindustry Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tribhuwana Tunggadewi University, Indonesia
Master Program of Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Corresponding author: Teti Estiasih, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, Jawa Timur, 65145, Indonesia. Tel.: +62 341 569214; Fax: +62 341 569214; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com.
Abstract: BACKGROUND:Unsaponifiable matters (USM) from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) contains vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols), phytosterols, and squalene that have ability to reduce blood cholesterol. Fortification of USM into food products is a way for hypercholesterolemia management. OBJECTIVE:This study evaluated effects of fortification of USM from PFAD into instant noodle, bread, and biscuit on lipid profile improvement of hypercholesterolemia rats. It was also aimed to compare the effects of different type of foods as USM carrier that represented different processing steps and nutritional composition. METHODS:Rats were divided into control-standard diet and atherogenic diet fed groups, and 6 hypercholesterolemia groups fed by instant noodle, plain bread, and biscuit with 1% USM fortification and without fortification for 8 weeks. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol) was analysed at week 0, 4, and 8. Hepatic and fecal cholesterol and bile acid were also examined at the end of experiment to elucidate some mechanism of cholesterol lowering due to USM fortified foods administration. RESULTS:Some bioactive compounds lost during USM fortified food preparation and the highest retention was found in biscuit. Lipid profile improvement was indicated by reduction of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol, meanwhile HDL cholesterol increased. Type of fortified foods affected the level of alteration of lipid profile. Degree of lipid profile improvement was affected by nutritional composition of fortified foods, food intake of the rats, and level of bioactive content. Bioactive compounds in USM fortified foods inhibited cholesterol absorption that indicated by higher fecal cholesterol and bile acid compared to atherogenic diet fed group. Modulation of cholesterol synthesis was likely to occur that indicated by lower hepatic cholesterol and higher bile acids. CONCLUSIONS:Feeding of USM fortified food products improved lipid profile of hypercholesterolemia rats.