Affiliations: [a] Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
| [b] Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
| [c] Centre of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Serbia
Corresponding author: Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Shohadaye Gomnam Blv., Yazd, Iran. Tel.: +98 35 38209143; Fax: +98 35 38209119; E-mail: [email protected].
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:Serum phospholipid omega-3 fatty acid levels in patients suffering from both type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) are lower than in their healthy counterparts. Omega-3 supplementation can be effective in controlling glycemic indices in T2DM, and in improving lipid profiles in T2DM and NAFLD as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profile in patients with T2DM and NAFLD. METHODS:In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 60 patients with T2DM and NAFLD were enrolled. The participants were randomly divided into two groups. The omega-3 group (OG) received capsules containing omega-3 fatty acids (2g/d), and the placebo group (PG) received placebo capsules (2g/d) during a12 week period. Dietary intake was assessed with 24-hour dietary recalls. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were collected at the baseline and after 12 weeks. Serum levels of glycemic indices (fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)) and lipid profile (levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c)) were measured. RESULTS:Fifty-six patients completed the study. Paired t-test revealed no significant differences in the baseline measurements between the two groups. At the end of the study compared with the PG, the OG had a significant reduction in serum TG levels. However, there was no significant effect of omega-3 supplementation on the other parameters: the mean FBG or HbA1c concentration, neither on TC, LDL-c and HDL-c levels. CONCLUSION:Two grams per day of omega-3 supplementation after 12 weeks led to a significant reduction in serum TG levels in patients with T2DM and NAFLD. However, no significant effects were observed on FBG, HbA1c, TC, LDL-c, and HDL-c levels.