Affiliations: [a] Profesora del Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina de la UNAM, Dirección: Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina UNAM, Cuidad Universitaria | [b] Departamento de Investigación en Epidemiología. Instituto Nacional de Pediatría y profesora del Departamento de Salud Pública de la Facultad de Medicina de la UNAM | [c] Profesora y alumna de Doctorado del Departamento de Salud Pública de la Facultad de Medicina de la UNAM | [d] Profesor del Departamento de Salud Pública de la Facultad de Medicina de la UNAM | [e] Profesor de la Universidad Arturo Jauretche. Buenos Aires, Argentina
| [f] Profesor de la Facultad de Economía de la UNAM | [g]
Profesor University Federico II of Naples, Italy
Corresponding author: Moreno-Altamirano Laura, Profesora del Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina de la UNAM, Dirección: Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina UNAM, Cuidad Universitaria. Tel.: +52 55 95 73 96; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In recent years, dietary pattern analysis has emerged as an alternative and complementary approach to examining the relationship between diet and risk of chronic diseases. Obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke and some cancers have become a more frequent cause of disability and premature death in both developed and developing countries. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate food availability and the evolution of dietary patterns in Italy between 1961 and 2011 to identify possible contributing factors to the rise in NCDs such obesity and MetS. METHODOLOGY: An ecological study was conducted on the basis of Food Balance Sheet (FBS) (kcal per capita per day), of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). With this data cluster analysis (hierarchical and K-means) was performed to identify dietary patterns. By analysis of variance ANOVA and post hoc analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test intercluster were analysed each food. RESULTS: Three periods were identified. The availability of kcal/person/day increased slightly, but showed important changes in dietary patterns composition and they showed clearly changes, it moved away of the Mediterranean diet and its composition was found more in line with the so-called nutritional or dietary transition. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the rise in NCDs as MetS and its components during this time, the observed changes in eating habits may have contributed to deleterious effects on metabolic heath. Thus, dietary modifications may be warranted.