Affiliations: 55 Park Place, Centre for Business Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society, Cardiff University, Cardiff Cf10 3AT, United Kingdom. ThankappanS@cf.ac.uk
Note:  School of Management and Business, Cledwyn Building, Penglais, The University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth SY23 3DD, United Kingdom, email@example.com
Note:  Institute of Rural Studies, Llanbadarn, University of Wales Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth SY23 3AL United Kingdom, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Smallholder agriculture has made an increasing use of subsidized mechanization and energy inputs to reduce short-term risks in semi-arid conditions in north-west India. However, geographic patterns of production and scale of mechanization are straining resources and increasing the risk of serious degradation of natural resources. In this paper, the possibility of maximizing the revenue and energy returns in the agricultural sector at village level to fulfil the food, fuel, and feed requirements of the village has been attempted. This paper describes the energy flows through four subsystems of smallholder agricultural village: crop system; non-crop land uses; livestock systems; and households in a semi-arid region in India. By employing a multi-objective programming model, changes in agricultural activities required to optimize energy use are estimated so that economic conditions and local energy utilization of the village can be improved and energy import kept to a minimum.