Affiliations: Department of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA | Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Note:  Corresponding author: Dr. François Aspesberro, 4800 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105, M/S MB.10.620, USA. Tel.: +1 206 987 2170; Fax: +1 206 987 3866; E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Acute neurologic complications in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients cause significant morbidity and mortality. To conduct a comprehensive review of the existing literature reporting acute neurologic complications of the central nervous system among children undergoing HSCT. Comprehensive literature review from 2000 to 2014 using Medline. A total of 566 pediatric articles were reviewed and data from 66 studies selected. A brief overview of morbidity and mortality in pediatric HSCT patients is provided followed by a summary of findings related to acute neurologic complications. Acute central nervous system complications in pediatric HSCT patients are varied and are the result of multiple causes including infection, drug-related toxicity, immune suppression, vascular injury and neoplasms.