Affiliations: Department of Oncology, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
Note:  Corresponding author: Dr. Kenneth R. Cooke, Professor of Oncology and Pediatrics, Department of Oncology, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Tel.: +1 443 287 2949; Fax: +1 410 502 7223; E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Non-infectious lung injury following hematopoietic stem cell transplant may be driven by either immune or non-immune pathways of inflammation. Common alloimmune lung complications include idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), transfusion related lung injury, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and peri-engraftment respiratory distress syndrome, with both diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and peri-engraftment respiratory distress syndrome existing as subsets of IPS when infection is absent. This review will discuss the definitions, risk factors, and pathogeneses of IPS and highlight the diagnostic work-up and novel approaches to treatment.