Affiliations: Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of California, San Francisco - School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA | Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco - School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA | Department of Pediatrics, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital, San Francisco, CA, USA | Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Joseph M Sanzari Children's Hospital at Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ, USA
Note:  Corresponding author: Dr. Shira J. Gertz, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Joseph M. Sanzari Children's Hospital, Hackensack University Medical Center, 30 Prospect Ave, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA. Tel.: +1 551 996 2403; Fax: +1 551 996 4277; E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are at risk for acquiring a variety of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), which result in frequent pediatric intensive care unit admission with high mortality. Recent advances in conditioning regimens, opportunistic infection prophylaxis, diagnostic tools, and treatment modalities have broadly impacted our understanding of LRTI among these vulnerable patients. In this review, the most common bacteria, viruses, and fungi causing LRTI in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients are discussed.
Keywords: Pediatric, bone marrow transplant, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, intensive care unit, critical care, pulmonary, lower respiratory tract, infection, pneumonia, immunocompromise