Affiliations: Magnetoencephalography Lab, Florida Hospital, Orlando, FL, USA | Milena's Functional Brain Mapping and Brain-Computer Interface Laboratory, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, FL, USA | Department of Neurobiology and Biophysics, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania | Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, FL, USA | Department of Radiology, Florida Hospital, Orlando, FL, USA
Note:  Corresponding author: Dr. Milena Korostenskaja, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Lab, Florida Hospital for Children, 2501 North Orange Ave, Suite 139, Orlando, Florida 32803, USA. Tel.: +1 407 303 9512; Fax: +1 407 303 7708; E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Childhood epileptic encephalopathies (CEE) are often characterized by abnormal brain development in which epileptic electrical discharges may contribute to cognitive deficits, behavioral disturbances, or psychomotor dysfunction. Electroencephalography (EEG) is the primary diagnostic imaging tool used by care providers in order to observe the aggressive paroxysmal activity that manifests from CEE. Though EEG is an effective diagnostic tool, it provides limited insight into the etiology and pathophysiology that can be obtained through other imaging techniques. The aim of this paper is to review current neuroimaging techniques, such as intracranial EEG, magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography and discuss how they complement EEG findings and contribute to our understanding of CEE. In addition, we address the value of imaging techniques in defining and predicting cognitive changes in CEE.
Keywords: Electrocorticography, EEG, encephalopathy, epilepsy, epilepsy surgery, functional MRI, neuroimaging, pediatrics, MEG, PET