Affiliations: Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Iowa Children’s Hospital, Iowa City, IA, USA
Note:  Corresponding author: Dr. Satsuki Matsumoto, Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Iowa Childrenn’s Hospital, 200 Hawkins drive, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Tel.: +1 319 356 1851; Fax: +1 319 384 8818; E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Neurostimulation for epilepsy is a rapidly expanding field. Since the introduction of vagus nerve stimulation more than 15 yr ago, there have been new developments in the area, including deep brain stimulation (DBS) and responsive neurostimulation. Both of these modalities now have class-I evidence supporting their use. The pivotal trials for DBS and responsive neurostimulation will be summarized. Little is known about the application of these new modalities in pediatric population. Case reports and case series of DBS including pediatric population are summarized.
Keywords: Deep brain stimulation, responsive neurostimulation, neurostimulation, drug-resistant epilepsy, seizures, epilepsy surgery