Affiliations: Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA | Epilepsy Service, Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA | Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
Note:  Corresponding author: Paul A. Caruso, Director of Pediatric Neuroimaging, Division of Neuroradiology Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Tel.: +1 617 726 8323; Fax: +1 617 573 3490; E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: This chapter is a practical “why, how to, and when” chapter, written in three parts to address three questions that arise when the epileptologist or neuroimager evaluates a patient with epilepsy. Why do magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)? How to do MRS in the patient with epilepsy? When, that is, in what clinical-imaging setting, can MRS help to diagnose or manage the patient with epilepsy?
Keywords: MRI, MRS, epilepsy, inborn error of metabolism, malformation of cortical development, focal cortical dysplasia, tumor, neoplasm