Department of Internal Medicine III, Clinical Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Gender Medicine Unit, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
| [b] Section for Science of Complex Systems, CeMSIIS, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
| [c] Complexity Science Hub Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Gender Institute, Gars am Kamp, Austria
Correspondence to: University Prof. Dr. Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Tel.: +43 0 1 40400 43100; Fax: +43 0 1 40400 43090; E-mail: [email protected].
Abstract: Background:In general, the risk to develop Parkinson’s disease (PD) is higher in men compared to women. Besides male sex and genetics, research suggests diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for PD as well. Objective:In this population-level study, we aimed at investigating the sex-specific impact of DM on new diagnoses of PD. Methods:Medical claims data were analyzed in a cross-sectional study in the Austrian population between 1997 and 2014. In the age group of 40–79 and 80+, 235,268 patients (46.6%females, 53.4%males) with DM were extracted and compared to 1,938,173 non-diabetic controls (51.9%females, 48.1%males) in terms of risk of developing PD. Results:Men with DM had a 1.46 times increased odds ratio (OR) to be diagnosed with PD compared to non-diabetic men (95%CI 1.38–1.54, p < 0.001). The association of DM with newly diagnosed PD was significantly greater in women (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.60–1.82, p < 0.001) resulting in a relative risk increase of 1.17 (95%CI 1.11–1.30) in the age group 40 to 79 years. In 80+-year-olds the relative risk increase is 1.09 (95%CI 1.01–1.18). Conclusion:Although men are more prone to develop PD, women see a higher risk increase in PD than men amongst DM patients.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Parkinson’s disease, women’s health, sex differences