Affiliations: [a] College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, Henan province, China
| [b] Basic Medical Collenge, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, Henan province, China
Correspondence to: Christian Hölscher and Zhenqiang Zhang, College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, Henan province, China. [email protected]. and [email protected].
Note: [*] These authors contributed equally to this work.
Abstract: Background:Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a peptide hormone derived from the proglucagon gene expressed in the intestines, pancreas and brain. Some previous studies showed that GLP-2 improved aging and Alzheimer’s disease related memory impairments. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, and to date, there is no particular medicine reversed PD symptoms effectively. Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate neuroprotective effects of a GLP-2 analogue in the 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) PD mouse model. Methods:In the present study, the protease resistant Gly(2)-GLP-2 (50 nmol/kg ip.) analogue has been tested for 14 days by behavioral assessment, transmission electron microscope, immunofluorescence histochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot in an acute PD mouse model induced by MPTP. For comparison, the incretin receptor dual agonist DA5-CH was tested in a separate group. Results:The GLP-2 analogue treatment improved the locomotor and exploratory activity of mice, and improved bradykinesia and movement imbalance of mice. Gly(2)-GLP-2 treatment also protected dopaminergic neurons and restored tyrosine hydroxylase expression levels in the substantia nigra. Gly(2)-GLP-2 furthermore reduced the inflammation response as seen in lower microglia activation, and decreased NLRP3 and interleukin-1β pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels. In addition, the GLP-2 analogue improved MPTP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the substantia nigra. The protective effects were comparable to those of the dual agonist DA5-CH. Conclusion:The present results demonstrate that Gly(2)-GLP-2 can attenuate NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation and mitochondrial damage in the substantia nigra induced by MPTP, and Gly(2)-GLP-2 shows neuroprotective effects in this PD animal model.