Affiliations: [a] Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
| [b] Department of Experimental Medical Science, The Group for Integrative Neurophysiology and Neurotechnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
| [c] Department of Experimental Medical Science, Basal Ganglia Pathophysiology Unit, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Correspondence to: Per Petersson, Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: The mechanisms and significance of basal ganglia oscillations is a fundamental research question engaging both clinical and basic investigators. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), neural activity in basal ganglia nuclei is characterized by oscillatory patterns that are believed to disrupt the dynamic processing of movement-related information and thus generate motor symptoms. Beta-band oscillations associated with hypokinetic states have been reviewed in several excellent previous articles. Here we focus on faster oscillatory phenomena that have been reported in association with a diverse range of motor states. We review the occurrence of different types of fast oscillations and the evidence supporting their pathophysiological role. We also provide a general discussion on the definition, possible mechanisms, and translational value of synchronized oscillations of different frequencies in cortico-basal ganglia structures. Revealing how oscillatory phenomena are caused and spread in cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical networks will offer a key to unlock the neural codes of both motor and non-motor symptoms in PD. In preclinical therapeutic research, recording of oscillatory neural activities holds the promise to unravel mechanisms of action of current and future treatments.
Keywords: Pathophysiology, movement disorders, bradykinesia, dyskinesia, animal models, cortex, thalamus