Affiliations: Department of Neurology, Technical University Dresden, Fetscherstraße, Dresden, Germany
Correspondence to: Lisa Klingelhoefer, MD, Clinical and Research Fellow, Department of Neurology, Technical University Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are varied, involve the upper and lower GI tract and are evident in all stages of the disease. Recognition and re-evaluation of these non motor symptoms (NMS) due to the course of PD is important. They have a major impact on the efficacy of oral antiparkinsonian medication and health related quality of life. Treatment needs to be tailored to the specific patient case with evaluation of PD stage, the specific GI NMS and comorbidities. This article provides an overview of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic options for GI NMS in PD.
Keywords: Gastrointestinal non motor symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, NMS, Parkinson’s disease, PD, gastric symptoms, therapy, gut