Affiliations: Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, España, Manila, Philippines | Department of Psychiatry, The Medical city, Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City, Philippines | Neurology, Neurosciences and Psychiatry, The Royal and Pontifical University of Santo Tomas, España, Manila, Philippines | 443 University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Clinical Division, Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines | Movement Disorder Service, International Institute of Neuroscience, St. Luke's Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines
Note:  Correspondence to: Mary Anne P. Sunga, MD, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, España, Manila, Philippines. Email: email@example.com
Note:  Correspondence to: Raymond L. Rosales, MD, PhD, Professor of Neurology, Neurosciences and Psychiatry, The Royal and Pontifical University of Santo Tomas, España, Manila, Philippines. Tel.: +632 7313001; Fax: +632 2547432; Emails: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Abstract: With the increasing understanding of the involvement of basal ganglia circuits in the functions of movement, cognition, emotion and motivation, the network model of dystonia posits a plausible mechanism for the co-occurrence of mental dysfunctions in dystonia-plus syndromes. Genetic mutations that alter the production of neurotransmitters and receptors can potentially affect the function of these interconnecting circuits and yield non-motor symptoms as well. This article reviews the psychiatric findings in dystonia-plus syndromes reported thus far in the literature, both in animal models and human subjects. Based on this innovative understanding of the pathophysiology, implications to treatment of combined motor and non-motor symptoms (i.e. mental dysfunctions) are also briefly discussed.