Affiliations: VA Northern California Health Care System, Martinez, CA, USA | Center for Neuroscience, UC Davis, Davis, CA, USA | Department of Neurology, UC Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA | Department of Radiology, UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA | Action Brain and Cognition Laboratory, Department of Psychology, and fMRIotago, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand | Department of Neurobiology and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA | Department of Psychology, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA | Human Cognitive Neurophysiology Laboratory, VA NCHCS, Martinez, CA, USA | Department of Psychology, UC Davis, Davis, CA, USA
Note:  Correspondence to: Elizabeth A. Disbrow, Center for Neuroscience, University of California Davis, 1544 Newton Ct, Davis CA 95618, USA. Tel.: +1 530 752 4484; Fax: +1 530 757 8827; E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Background: Parkinson's disease (PD), traditionally considered a movement disorder, has been shown to affect executive function such as the ability to adapt behavior in response to new environmental situations. Objective: to identify the impact of PD on neural substrates subserving two specific components of normal movement which we refer to as activation (initiating an un-cued response) and inhibition (suppressing a cued response). Methods: We used fMRI to measure pre-movement processes associated with activating an un-cued response and inhibiting a cued response plan in 13 PD (ON anti-parkinsonian medications) and 13 control subjects. Subjects were shown a visual arrow cue followed by a matched or mismatched response target that instructed them to respond with a right, left, or bilateral button press. In mismatched trials, an un-cued (new) response was initiated, or the previously cued response was suppressed. Results: We were able to isolate pre-movement responses in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, specifically in the right hemisphere. During the activation of an un-cued movement, PD subjects showed decreased activity in the putamen and increased cortical activity in bilateral DLPFC, SMA, subcentral gyrus and inferior frontal operculum. During inhibition of a previously cued movement, the PD group showed increased activation in SMA, S1/M1, premotor and superior parietal areas. Conclusion: Right DLPFC plays a role in pre-movement processes, and DLPFC activity is abnormal in PD. Decreased specificity of responses was observed in multiple ROI's. The basal ganglia are involved in circuits that coordinate activation and inhibition involved in action selection as well as execution.