Affiliations: Division of Neonatal Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA | Neonatal Nutrition Research Lab, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA
Note:  Corresponding author: Dr. David H. Adamkin, Division of Neonatal Medicine, University of Louisville, 601S. Floyd Street, Suite 801, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. Tel.: +1 502 852 8470; Fax: +1 502 852 8473; E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: A number of adaptations in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) protocols and practices for preterm neonates have been realized in the past several years, resulting in better survival and developmental outcomes. The early provision of appropriate concentrations of amino acids and energy are now recommended in evidence-based guidelines. Standardized TPN formulations are now available for many patients and may be associated with cost savings and improved adherence to guidelines. Several advantages of these preparations, including promotion of safer administration, consistent adherence to guidelines, and overall best practices, have been well documented. However, careful monitoring is still required to optimize nutrition for individual patients and to support overall safety as TPN practices continue to change. Additional research is needed to develop new lipid formulations that are tailored for safe use by very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. This review presents recent research and improvements to guidelines, as well as future product needs for VLBW and ELBW neonates.
Keywords: Extremely low birth weight neonates, nutrition, total parenteral nutrition, very low birth weight neonates