Affiliations: [a] Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
| [b] Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Newborn Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
Address for correspondence: Pallavi Sagar, MD, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 34 Fruit Street, Ellison 237, Boston, MA-02114, USA. E-mail: [email protected].
Abstract: BACKGROUND:Pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) is occasionally seen in premature infants after surfactant treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). These infants receive frequent chest radiographs (CXR) during and after hospitalization enabling long-term radiographic-clinical correlation. OBJECTIVE:To chart the natural evolution of CXR findings of PH in RDS and correlate radiographic patterns to supplemental oxygen requirement. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Retrospective review of clinical notes for gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and oxygen requirement were performed. CXRs were reviewed at 4 time-points; during PH, 28 days postnatal age, 36 weeks and at farthest available clinical follow-up. RESULTS:18 infants born (2003–2016), GA (24–30 weeks); BW (482–1590 grams) were included. Mean onset of PH was 1.94 (0–5) days. 9/18 (50%) had IVH. 3 died during PH; all had IVH. During PH, CXR showed whiteout 9/18 (50%); patchy opacities 5/18 (27%); diffuse haziness 1/18 (6%) and no change 3/18 (17%). At 28 days postnatal age, CXR showed fine-interstitial (FI) markings 14/15 (93%) and whiteout 1/15 (7%). At 36 weeks,12/14 (85%) had FI and 2/14 (15%) developed cystic-interstitial changes. At farthest follow-up, FI 3/13 (23%); coarse-interstitial 4/13 (30%); peri-bronchial cuffing 5/13 (38%); normal 1/13 (9%) and the majority had hyperinflation 9/13 (69%). At discharge, 9/14 (64%) required home-oxygen and 5/14 (36%) were on room-air. At farthest follow-up, 6/14 (42%) required home-oxygen and 8/14 (58%) were on room-air. CONCLUSION:Premature infants that survive PH may later develop chronic lung disease of prematurity with an evolving interstitial pattern on CXR that clears overtime as they outgrow the need for supplemental oxygen.