Abstract: BACKGROUND: Study aims to evaluate whether vancomycin dosing from published dosing algorithms correlate with the attainment of target troughs of 10 to 20 mg/L. METHODS: NICU patients who received minimum three doses of vancomycin and had a trough level met inclusion criteria. Dosing information was retrospectively evaluated to determine which published dosing regimen was followed. Dosing algorithms used were matched to NeoFax/Harriet Lane, renal-function directed dosing, and weight-directed dosing, in which the latter two can be found in Pediatric and Neonatal Lexi-Drugs. Primary outcome was percentage of troughs within therapeutic (10 to 20 mg/L) and subtherapeutic (less than 10 mg/L) levels. RESULTS: Of 97 troughs evaluated, NeoFax/Harriet Lane accounted for 86.6%, renal-function directed accounted for 5.1%, and weight-directed dosing accounted for 18.5% of dosing algorithms. NeoFax/Harriet Lane, renal-function directed, and weight-directed dosing attained therapeutic levels between 10 to 20 mg/L at a rate of 60.7%, 60%, and 50% of the time, respectively. With respect to initiation of therapy, a higher dose of 15 mg/kg versus 10 mg/kg attained therapeutic levels (p < 0.001; OR 11.22; 95% CI, 3.96 to 31.81), while a serum creatinine value below 0.5 mg/dL attained subtherapeutic levels (p = 0.028; OR 0.068; 95% CI, 0.006 to 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: NeoFax, Harriet Lane, and renal-directed dosing from Pediatric and Neonatal Lexi-Drugs achieved target troughs within the 10 to 20 mg/L range more often than weight-directed dosing from Pediatric and Neonatal Lexi-Drugs. Initiating therapy at a higher dose and patient serum creatinine value above 0.5 mg/dL were factors significantly associated with a 10 to 20 mg/L range.