Affiliations: [a] Pontificia Universidad Javeriana—Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Bogotá, Colombia
Department of Pathology, Perinatal Division, Northwestern Medical Group, Chicago, IL, USA
Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia
| [d] Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana—Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Bogotá, Colombia
Institute of Human Genetics, The Medical School, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana and Universidad Tecnológica de Bolivar, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia
| [f] Research Seedbed in Perinatal Medicine Pontificia Universidad Javeriana: Medical School Pontificia Universidad Javeriana and Medical residents Pontificia Universidad Javeriana—Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Bogotá, Colombia | [g] Pathology Residency Program, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia
Address for correspondence: Mercedes Olaya-C, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Patología. Carrera 7a 40-62 Bogotá, Colombia. Tel.: +57 1 5946161/Ext. 2440/2; Cel.: +57 3106285500; E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:The umbilical cord (UC) is a vital structure; its alterations affect the newborn and neurological impact can be permanent. Paradoxically, factors that determine it remain unknown. We explore the differential VEGF protein expression in the UC's proximal and distal portions in relation to the hypothesis that the UC has differential growth and that VEGF plays a role in it. METHODS: An observational analytical study was performed. One UC segment was taken proximal to fetus and another distal; both were randomly processed; VEGF immunohistochemical analysis was performed; two blinded pathologists read results. RESULTS: Forty-eight newborns were included. Protein expression between the two edges of the umbilical cord, in any kind of cells, was interpreted. Endothelium, amnion, and stromal cells expressed VEGF; the first two were not different between opposite ends. Stromal cells had differential expression: higher in the proximal to the fetus portion. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of molecular factors is necessary. UC cells widely expressed VEGF, possibly contributing to UC growth. Even though stromal cell expression was different, the interaction with activity close to the fetus must be explored.