University Heart Center, Pediatric Cardiology, Hamburg, Germany
University Heart Center, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hamburg, Germany
University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Institute of Pathology, Hamburg, Germany
Address for correspondence: Veronika C. Stark, Pediatric Cardiology, University Heart Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany. Tel.: +49 (0)40 7410 53719; Fax: +49 (0)40 7410 56826; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: Alveolar capillary dysplasia (ACD) is a rare neonatal lung disease characterized anatomically by a defective and hypoplastic development of pulmonary alveoli leading to persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) and finally lethal respiratory failure. It is often associated with congenital left heart obstruction. Given the fatal prognosis an early diagnosis is important. However, due to the fast onset of PPHN in neonates and lack of pathognomonic signs for its cause, safe and fast detection of ACD is challenging. Therefore, following the exclusion of cardiac and common pulmonary causes, lung biopsy becomes essential for diagnosis. We hereby report a case of ACD with atrial septal defect type one and hypoplastic aortic arch with an ante-mortem diagnosis and discuss the current state of medicine in relation to ACD.