Abstract: A new method for creating instruction level energy models for
pipelined processors is introduced. This method is based on measuring the
instantaneous current drawn by the processor during the execution of the
instructions. An appropriate instrumentation set up was established for this
purpose. According to the proposed method the energy costs (base and
inter-instruction costs) are modeled in relation to a reference instruction
(e.g. NOP). These costs incorporate inter-cycle energy components, which cancel
each other when they are summed to produce the energy consumption of a program
resulting in estimates with high accuracy. This is confirmed by the results.
Also the dependencies of the energy consumption on the instruction parameters
(e.g. operands, addresses) are studied and modeled in an efficient way.
Keywords: Instruction-level energy modeling, energy characterization, instantaneous current measurement, microprocessor