Affiliations: [a] Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
| [b] Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Bio-system Engineering, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
| [c] National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Corresponding author: Maryam Mizani, Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Postal Code: 1477893755, Tehran, Iran. E-mail: [email protected] ORCID:0000-0003-4259-5391.
Abstract: BACKGROUND:Berberine, extracted from Berberis vulgaris, is one of the well-known natural antioxidant sources. OBJECTIVE:Optimizing the berberine extraction conditions from the whole Barberry plant and microencapsulation of the optimized extract to be used as a bioactive ingredient in functional orange juice. METHODS:Seventeen extraction processes were designed to determine an optimized method for producing an ethanol/water extract with maximum yield, safety, and antioxidant properties. The optimal extract was microencapsulated by complex coacervation using tragacanth/gelatin and then spray-dried. The selected microcapsules based on morphology, particle size, and solubility were added to orange juice, and the physical and sensory properties of the functional drink, as well as the kinetic release models, were analyzed. RESULTS:An optimal extract with 82% antioxidant activity was prepared using a 75% ethanol/water ratio and an extraction time of 0.5 h at 22.3°C. Spherical-shaped microcapsules could create a desirable cloudy appearance with good stability in the pH of orange juice. The kinetics of the berberine release revealed an initial burst phase followed by a prolonged one, which would appeal to consumers’ sensory perceptions. CONCLUSIONS:The excellent compatibility between berberine and orange juice provides a potential capacity to fortify a high-consumption drink with a phytonutrient presented in a berry fruit.