Affiliations: Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz, Germany
Corresponding author: Prof. Dr. Thomas Efferth; Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz, Germany. Tel.: +49 6131 3925751; E-mail: [email protected].
Abstract: BACKGROUND:Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as basis for winemaking is one of the most economically important plants in modern agriculture. As requirements in viticulture are increasing due to changing environments, terroir and pests, classical agriculture techniques reach their limits. OBJECTIVE:We summarize the impact of modern “omics” technologies on modern grapevine breeding and cultivation, as well as for dealing with challenges in viniculture caused by environmental or terroir changes and pests and diseases. In this review, we give an overview on current research on the influence of “omics” technologies on modern viticulture. RESULTS:Considerable advances in bioinformatics and analytical techniques such as next generation sequencing or mass spectrometry fueled new molecular biological studies. Modern “omics” technologies such as “genomics”, “transcriptomics”, “proteomics” and “metabolomics” allow the investigation on a large-scale data basis and the identification of key markers. Holistic understanding of genes, proteins and metabolites in combination with external biotic and abiotic factors improves vine and wine quality. CONCLUSION:The rapid evolution in wine quality was only enabled by the progress of modern biotechnological methods developing enology from a handcraft to science.