Affiliations: [a] Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Krakow, Poland
| [b] Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
Corresponding author: Małgorzata Kalemba-Drożdż, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Gustaw Herling-Grudziński St. 1, 30-705 Krakow, Poland. Tel.: +48 12 252 45 06; Fax: +48 12 252 45 02; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: BACKGROUND:Heterocyclic aromatic amines are formed during thermal processing of meat and are known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic factors, while the consumption of fruit and vegetables decreases the risk of cancer. OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to investigate if berry fruit juices, a rich source of antioxidants (polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbate), may protect DNA from damages induced by the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4, 5-b)pyridine (PhIP). METHODS:Lymphocytes isolated from healthy volunteers were treated with 25–100 μM PhIP in the presence or absence of pressed berry juice (0.1%) from: bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rosehips (Rosa rugosa), sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), Noni (Morinda citrifolia) and Goji (Lycium barbarum). Antioxidant power, polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and ascorbate concentration in juices were determined. DNA damage was measured using comet assay. RESULTS:Berry juices were not genotoxic and caused an overall significant decrease in oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by PhIP. The antioxidant properties depend on concentration of polyphenols in juice. CONCLUSIONS:Northern Hemisphere berries bear the negative effects of food mutagens. Berries as natural source of polyphenols should be recommended in daily diet for maintaining health.
Keywords: Chemoprevention, DNA damage, oxidative stress, heterocyclic amines, berries, PhIP