Affiliations: [a] Nutrient Data Laboratory, USDA ARS Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA
| [b] Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, USDA ARS Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA
| [c] Center for Nutrition Research, Institute for Food Safety and Health, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA
Corresponding author: Dr. Xianli Wu, Nutrient Data Laboratory, USDA ARS Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. Tel.: +1 301 504 0693; E-mail: [email protected].
Note:  Presented in part at Experimental Biology, April 25, 2017, Chicago, IL [Wu, X., Sun J., Ahuja, J., Haytowitz, D. B., Burton-Freeman, B., Chen, P., Pehrsson, P. R. (2017) Anthocyanin profiles and contents in processed raspberries on the US market. FASEB J. 31: #454.6 (abstract)]
Note:  Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Abstract: BACKGROUND:Red raspberries contain high concentrations of anthocyanins (ACNs). Consumption of red raspberries has steadily increased in the US because of their potential health effects. Processed red raspberry products are widely used in commercial applications, but their ACN contents are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE:Types of ACNs and their contents in common processed red raspberries (frozen, juice concentrate and puree) on the US market were investigated. METHOD:ACN were analyzed and quantified in thirty-four nationally representative processed red raspberry samples by HPLC-MS. RESULTS:Seven cyanidin or pelargonidin glycosides were detected and quantified. Each individual samples contained 4 to 5 of them. Cyanidin-3-O-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were found to be the major ACNs in all samples, while the minor ACNs varied among different samples. Total ACN contents ranged from 13.88±1.21 to 38.43±2.75 mg/100 g for frozen red raspberries, 30.96±5.34 to 65.29±3.37 mg/100 g for red raspberry juice concentrates, and 10.89±0.94 to 27.11±1.15 mg/100 g for red raspberry puree samples. CONCLUSION:The types of ACNs varied slightly but the contents varied considerably between different samples. The sources (national brand vs. store brand, domestic or imported) and processing method (seeded or seedless) did not appear to be major influential factors when multiple samples were included in the comparison.
Keywords: Red raspberries, anthocyanin, cyanidin, pelargonidin, juice