Antioxidant and cardioprotective effects of Garcinia indica (kokoberry), an Indian super fruit in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats
BACKGROUND: Garcinia indica Choisy, a slender evergreen tree is endemic to the west coast of India. The dried rind of the fruit of Garcinia indica is an Indian spice and a food additive. Many therapeutic effects of the fruit have been reported in literature.
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the cardioprotective and antioxidant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIE) in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in rats.
METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with GIE (400 & 800 mg/kg, po) daily for 30 days and administered ISO (85 mg/kg, sc) on the last 2 days at an interval of 24 hr to induce myocardial injury. Activities of marker enzymes (AST, LDH and CK-MB) were assessed in serum and heart. The lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde and endogenous antioxidants viz., reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were assayed in heart.
RESULTS: Significant myocardial necrosis, depletion of GSH levels, decrease in antioxidant and marker enzyme activities in the heart homogenate, elevation in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in serum levels of marker enzymes (AST, LDH & CK-MB) was observed in ISO treated rats when compared with normal rats. Pre-treatment of GIE to ISO treated rats resulted in a significant attenuation of the ISO-elevated levels of serum marker enzymes and malondialdehyde, and restoration of the levels of the ISO-depleted marker enzymes, reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes. The biochemical results were corroborated by electrocardiographic and histopathological findings.
CONCLUSION: It may be concluded that GIE oral treatment to ISO challenged rats augments endogenous antioxidants of rat heart, enhances scavenging of free radicals and inhibits lipid peroxidation of membrane, thereby salvaging the myocardium from the deleterious effects of ISO.