Affiliations: [a] Université Paris-Est, ESYCOM (EA 2552), UPEM, ESIEE Paris, CNAM, Noisy-le-Grand, France
| [b] AllianSTIC ESIGETEL, 33 Rue Victor Hugo, Villejuif, France
| [c] ELA Innovation, 297, rue Maurice Béjart, Montpellier, France
Corresponding author: Vighnesh Gharat, ELA Innovation, 297, rue Maurice Béjart, 34080 Montpellier, France. Tel.: +33 753647468; E-mail: email@example.com.
Abstract: Location-Based Services (LBS) associated with identification technologies are important aspects of smart cities as they provide useful information for planning and for making processes automated, efficient and cost-effective. Indoor environments pose several challenges for existing localization technologies because of their sensitivity to the environment which affects their accuracy and reliability. Low Frequency (LF) Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is ideally suited for indoor localization applications since LF magnetic fields are not greatly affected by the environment. The objective of the paper is to present a solution for identification and localization in smart cities based on RFID technology operating at 125 kHz and to compare its performance with Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) RFID systems, widely used for localization applications. In order to demonstrate the localization performance of the proposed system we present test results for an LF-RFID system implemented using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components in a challenging indoor environment of area 315 square meters. Proposed LF-RFID system is compared to UHF-RFID technology for localization performance in the same indoor environment. With the proposed system, for 352 position estimations, mean positioning error of 1.58 m is achieved with standard deviation of 0.76 m and for 90% of the cases, positioning error remains below 2.62 m. Based on the performance, possible applications of this technology in smart cities are discussed.