Note:  Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Patricia McDougall, St. Thomas More College, University of Saskatchewan, 1437 College Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W6. E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: This study investigated whether peer victimization and gender nonconformity are connected for both pre- and early adolescent boys and girls. 462 predominantly white, middle-class students from Grade 5-9 provided self-reports of victimization (physical, verbal, and relational) and gender nonconformity, as well as peer nominations of gender nonconformity and victimization. Multiple regression analyses showed that for both boys and girls peer-reported gender nonconformity was uniquely predictive of peer-reported victimization. The relationship between peer- and self-reported gender nonconformity and physical and relational victimization was moderated by sex, however, in reverse patterns. The association between gender nonconformity and peer victimization varied as a function of the type of victimization being experienced (physical, verbal, relational) and the source of ratings of victimization and gender nonconformity (self or peers).