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This double issue of IJDS comprises three regular and one invited paper: Hellmer et al. (2021) investigate in their experimental study the reasons for individual differences in conformity in a sample of Swedish 3.5-year-olds. In addition, the authors are interested in finding out whether conformity was socialized by parents via their parental style and whether conformity is correlated with the behaviors of anonymous sharing or obedience. Gresham (2021) investigates the moderating role of coping in the relation between community violence exposure and externalizing problems (e.g. delinquent behavior, physical aggression, and substance use) in a two-wave longitudinal study with low-income, urban adolescents. Espinoza et al. (2021) investigate in their longitudinal study the reciprocal relation between discrimination, disrespect sensitivity, and aggression, and whether they vary by sex in predominantly African American adolescents. Lehmann et al. (2021) address the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in their systematic review. They synthesize “available literature on psychosocial outcomes in schoolchildren (ages 6–13 years) who were exposed to family-related stressors during mandatory school closures.” (p. 85).

We very much hope that this issue reaches a wide readership. With this double issue, we also want to thank the expert reviewers for the issues of IJDS that have been published in 2021. Without their diligent efforts, we would not be able to implement a successful peer review process.

Herbert Scheithauer, Freie Universität Berlin


Bio Sketch

Herbert Scheithauer is Professor for Developmental and Clinical Psychology at Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany, and Head of the Unit “Developmental Science and Applied Developmental Psychology”. His research interests are on bullying, cyberbullying, and the development and evaluation of preventive interventions.



Espinoza, C.N. , Goering, M. , & Mrug, S. , (2021). Reciprocal relationships between disrespect sensitivity, racial discrimination, and aggression in African American youth. International Journal of Developmental Science, 15 (3-4), 75–84.


Gresham, B. , (2021). Moderating effects of coping style on externalizing behaviors and substance use in urban adolescents exposed to community violence. International Journal of Developmental Science, 15 (3-4), 61–73.


Hellmer, K. , Stenberg, G. , & Fawcett, C. , (2021). How does preschoolers’ conformity relate to parental style, anonymous sharing, and obedience? International Journal of Developmental Science, 15 (3-4), 49–59.


Lehmann, J. , Lechner, V. , & Scheithauer, H. , (2021). School closures during the COVID-19 pandemic: Psychosocial outcomes in children - A systematic review. International Journal of Developmental Science, 15 (3-4), 85–111.