Affiliations: Department of Psychology, Washington State University, WA, USA | FSBI Institute of Physiology SB RAMS, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia | Department of Psychology, Bowdoin College, ME, USA
Note:  Address for correspondence: Maria A. Gartstein, Department of Psychology, Washington State University, P.O. Box 644820, Pullman, WA 99164-4820, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: The present study was designed to examine cross-cultural differences in longitudinal links between infant temperament toddler behavior problems in the U.S. (N = 250) and Russia (N = 129). Profiles of risk/protective temperament factors varied across the two countries, with fewer significant temperament effects observed for the Russian, relative to the U.S. children. Regression analyses indicated important contributions for high levels of infant Negative Affectivity, and low levels of Falling Reactivity and Soothability, to Internalizing type difficulties for U.S., but not Russian, youngsters. Falling Reactivity also lowered the risk for Externalizing problems in the U.S., with Vocal Reactivity emerging as a marginal risk factor for Externalizing difficulties in Russia only. In addition, a number of mean differences between Russia and U.S. with respect to temperament and behavior problem scores, as well as significant interactions between culture and gender for Fear and Low Intensity Pleasure, emerged. Overall, this pattern of results may be indicative of greater importance of early self-regulation of negative emotions for children in the U.S.
Keywords: Temperament, cross-cultural developmental psychology, behavior problems, early childhood