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The top 100 cited cholesterol papers

Abstract

We have compiled a list of the 100 most cited articles in cholesterol research to assess research trends over the last 10 and 100 years to mark the 200th anniversary of the naming of cholesterol as part of the special issue of Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging.

1.Introduction

2016 is the 200th anniversary of the naming of cholesterol [1] and as part of the special issue of Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging to mark this milestone, this article presents an analysis of the most cited articles on cholesterol in an attempt to identify the most widely read and influential articles on the subject and give the authors the recognition they deserve. Such an analysis of cited papers can also identify trends, provide guidance for future research and highlight where there are insufficiencies in the current literature [1,2].

2.Methods and limitations

As with many areas of biomedicine, the field of cholesterol research historically has had a strong divide between biochemical and physiological investigations. As we began the process of selecting the 100-most-cited papers in the field this divide was in clear evidence. Most of the papers fell into one of the following categories:

  • (1) Methods for measuring cholesterol

  • (2) Cholesterol metabolism/homeostasis

  • (3) Cholesterol and disease

  • (4) Cholesterol lowering drugs

  • (5) Cholesterol biochemistry/biophysics

While the major interest of the journal is in the fifth category we felt it would also be interesting to look at the wider picture to mark this anniversary. Citation data are not readily available for papers published more than 100 years ago and for this reason we focused on the last 100 years and also, for comparison the last 10 years.

It is important to recognize that any search strategy represents an approximation to the field.

The data used in the tabulation of each originate from the Web of Science Core Collection database which includes but is not limited to all papers indexed by the NIH’s Medline database. Two selection filters were used to determine which papers would contribute to an article’s metrics. The first requirement was that all papers to be included in the analysis contained the search term “cholesterol” in the title field. Reviews were included in the analysis because, while it is relatively “easy” to write a review, it is very difficult to write a review that is well cited. Well-cited reviews tend to be authored by leaders in the field and present conceptual advances or new hypotheses that can be as important as experimental advances.

The second filter is temporal: only papers published and subsequently indexed in Web of Science Core Collection between January 1, 1916 and December 31, 2015 were considered for the 100 year analysis and only papers published and subsequently indexed in Web of Science Core Collection between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2015 were considered for the 10 year analysis. The queries for the two document sets were conducted on February 2, 2016 and March 29, 2016 respectively.

It is important to recognize that citation scores are, by necessity, close approximations rather than absolute values, the latter not being possible because all citation tools have slightly different variables (e.g. journals indexed, time period covered, data reliability).

3.Results

Table 1

Most-cited papers in cholesterol between January 1, 1916 and December 31, 2015

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
11972Friedewa, WT; Fredrick, DS; Levy, RIEstimation of concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of preparative ultracentrifugeCLINICAL CHEMISTRY16,697
22001Cleeman, JI; Grundy, SM; Becker, D; Clark, LT; Cooper, RS; Denke, MA; Howard, WJ; Hunninghake, DB; Illingworth, DR; Luepker, RV; McBride, P; McKenney, JM; Pasternak, RC; Stone, NJ; Van Horn, L; Brewer, HB; Ernst, ND; Gordon, D; Levy, D; Rifkind, B; Rossouw, JE; Savage, P; Haffner, SM; Orloff, DG; Proschan, MA; Schwartz, JS; Sempos, CT; Shero, ST; Murray, EZExecutive summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III)JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION12,564
31994Pedersen, TR; Kjekshus, J; Berg, K; Haghfelt, T; Faergeman, O; Thorgeirsson, G; Pyorala, K; Miettinen, T; Wilhelmsen, L; Olsson, AG; Wedel, H; Kristianson, K; Thomsen, H; Nordero, E; Thomsen, B; Lyngborg, K; Andersen, GS; Nielsen, F; Talleruphuus, U; Mcnair, A; Egstrup, K; Simonsen, EH; Simonsen, I; Vejbychristensen, H; Sommer, L; Eidner, PO; Klarholt, E; Henriksen, A;Randomized trial of cholesterol-lowering in 4444 patients with coronary-heart-disease – The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S)LANCET7573
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
Mellemgaard, K; Launbjerg, J; Freuergaard, P; Nielsen, L; Madsen, EB; Ibsen, H; Andersen, U; Enemark, H; Haarbo, J; Martinsen, B; Dahlstrom, CG; Thyrring, L; Thomassen, K; Jensen, G; Rasmussen, SL; Skov, N; Hansen, KN; Larsen, ML; Haastrup, B; Hjaere, I; Thuroe, A; Leth, A; Munch, M; Worck, R; Nielsen, B; Thorn, AG; Pedersenbjergaard, O; Fournaise, B; Sigurd, B; Enk, B; Nielsen, H; Jacobsen, L; Svendsen, TL; Hoegholm, A; Munter, H; Kaufmann, P; Haunso, S; Grande, P; Eriksen, C; Nielsen, HH; Jurlander, B; Pinborg, T; Pindborg, J; Tost, H; Christiansen, BD; Oppenhagen, M; Egede, F; Hvidt, S; Kjaerby, T; Lemming, L; Klausen, I; Miettinen, TA; Vanhanen, H; Strandberg, TE; Holtta, K; Luomanmaki, H; Pekuri, T; Vuorinen, A; Pasternack, A; Oksa, H; Siitonen, L; Rimpi, R; Kesaniemi, YA; Lilja, M; Korhonen, T; Rantala, A; Rantala, M; Savolainen, M; Ukkola, O; Laine, L; Virkkala, L; Lehto, S; Miettinen, H; Salokannel, A; Raisanen, R; Hognason, J; Kristjansdottir, H; Thorvaldsdottir, G; Sigurdsson, G; Sverrisson, JT; Hansteen, V; Kjelsberg, F; Berget, K; Pettersen, R; Balto, ER; Holm, T; Gundersen, T; Aslaksen, B; Andersen, EH; Torsvik, H; Faber, A; Indrebo, T; Ose, A; Roterud, T; Holstlarsen, L; Waage, K; Holstlarsen, E; Haerem, JW; Aukrust, P; Torp, R; Risberg, K; Mauseth, K; Gerdts, E; Nygard, O; Hallaraker, A; Gradek, G; Vangen, EM; Schartumhansen, H; Refsum, AM; Listerud, S; Gundersrud, B; Stene, AM; Klykken, B; Aakervik, O; Loraas, A; Foss, PO; Haga, A; Thoresen, L; Drivenes, A; Lem, P; Gabrielsen, F; Hestad, S; Rode, R; Haug, BK; Skjelvan, G; Eldorsen, E; Ytrearne, K; Rasmussen, K; Myhre, ESP; Nermoen, I; Christiansen, L; Karlsen, AS; Walberg, K; Tjonndal, HA; Kulseng, B; Rokseth, R; Nergard, TV; Roe, MO; Tenstad, O; Lofsnes, IL; Bergsrud, U; Melberg, TH; Vonbrandis, C; Barvik, S; Woie, L;
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
Abrahamsen, AM; Aarsland, T; Svanes, H; Noer, G; Nordlie, KE; Hanedalen, AE; Johansen, T; Larsen, CB; Ostholm, E; Overskeid, K; Sandvei, P; Johansen, A; Sognen, E; Aarskog, D; Dale, A; Hegrestad, S; Reikvam, A; Hawkes, L; Hoff, S; Torjussen, T; Norvik, R; Jorgensen, C; Hjermann, I; Leren, P; Narvestad, A; Fausa, D; Gjestvang, FT; Nordland, B; Brunmark, P; Bioklund, H; Bioklund, B; Forsberg, H; Bergstrom, B; Laaksonen, I; Vestermark, MB; Mascher, G; Hammarstrom, E; Trosell, K; Karlsson, L; Hallstrom, L; Stjerna, A; Slette, MK; Diderholm, E; Pberglund, K; Linde, B; Ahlmark, G; Saetre, H; Ahlberg, G; Sundkvist, K; Gustafsson, PE; Gustafsson, E; Norrby, A; Jaup, B; Svensson, L; Wiklund, O; Linden, T; Bergh, CH; Jonsteg, K; Bonnier, B; Lundin, Y; Romanus, K; Ulvenstam, G; Johansson, S; Wallin, I; Dudas, K; Andreasson, M; Torelund, G; Skarfors, E; Ruter, G; Akesson, L; Wagner, F; Ljungdahl, L; Wagner, V; Rasmanis, G; Edhag, O; Vourisalo, D; Hjelmsell, H; Wesley, G; Lundkvist, L; Angman, K; Olsson, A; Svenson, O; Kuylenstierna, J; Frisenettefich, K; Bergman, E; Stromblad, H; Jensen, S; Jonsson, E; Levin, C; Odeberg, H; Bengtsson, PO; Holmesson, E; Hedstrand, H; Bojo, L; Oberg, S; Leksell, H; Werner, P; Persson, S; Simonsson, M; Wirenstam, UB; Moberg, B; Ekstrand, AB; Nicol, P; Malmros, B; Saaw, J; Arcini, N; Kobosko, J; Anevik, IG; Gyland, F; Lundh, B; Wennerholm, M; Olsson, C; Kjellberg, J; Fabianson, K; Fraser, T; Bergkvist, I; Bergdahl, B; Fluur, C; Wajerstam, S; Svensson, KA; Ekholm, L; Torebo, E; Ryberg, A; Frisell, JE; Hedman, A; Wallrup, L; Andersen, G; Sandstrom, M; Alberg, K; Fagher, B; Thulin, T; Svenstam, I; Bjurman, A; Skoglund, E; Dahl, G; Kjellstrom, T; Juhlin, P; Sjooboquist, M; Sjogren, A; Loogna, E; Jansson, T; Friden, J;
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
Nilsson, O; Andersson, PO; Henriksson, C; Ellstrom, J; Brodersson, H; Lundquist, L; Aslund, M; Boman, K; Jansson, JH; Norrfors, B; Hoglund, C; Lundblad, M; Liljefors, I; Wennerstrom, L; Perz, I; Leijd, B; Falkenberg, C; Bergsten, L; Strom, S; Engstrom, AC; Ejdeback, J; Malmberg, K; Hogstrom, S; Stahl, L; Moller, BH; Lycksell, M; Soderstrom, M; Hansson, E; Hallen, C; Stakebarg, H; Borretzen, J; Heden, B; Andersson, K; Johnson, O; Birgander, LS; Elander, B; Lidell, C; Andersson, PE; Marklund, E; Dahlen, M; Rucker, F; Lofqvist, M; Wannberg, B; Lim, BH; Larsson, O; Andersson, G; Hansson, A; Uchto, M; Gowenius, M; Uggeldahl, I; Ursing, D; Hammarlund, P; Nyman, P; Tsuppuka, E; Malmberg, L; Goransson, K; Hasselgren, P; Insberg, CM; Petterson, S; Ahrlin, A; Lovheim, O; Andersson, LO; Grundstrom, I
41974Allain, CC; Poon, LS; Chan, CSG; Richmond, W; Fu, PCEnzymatic determination of total serum-cholesterolCLINICAL CHEMISTRY5978
51989Steinberg, D; Parthasarathy, S; Carew, TE; Khoo, JC; Witztum, JLBeyond cholesterol – Modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicityNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE5920
61996Sacks, FM; Pfeffer, MA; Moye, LA; Rouleau, JL; Rutherford, JD; Cole, TG; Brown, L; Warnica, JW; Arnold, JMO; Wun, CC; Davis, BR; Braunwald, EThe effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levelsNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE4789
72002Collins, R; Armitage, J; Parish, S; Sleight, P; Peto, RMRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: A randomised placebo-controlled trialLANCET4533
81986Brown, MS; Goldstein, JLA receptor-mediated pathway for cholesterol homeostasisSCIENCE3940
91952Abell, LL; Levy, BB; Brodie, BB; Kendall, FEA simplified method for the estimation of total cholesterol in serum and demonstration of its specificityJOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY3630
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
101998Tonkin, A; Aylward, P; Colquhoun, D; Glasziou, P; Harris, P; MacMahon, S; Magnus, P; Newel, D; Nestel, P; Sharpe, N; Hunt, D; Shaw, J; Simes, RJ; Thompson, P; Thomson, A; West, M; White, H; Simes, S; Hague, W; Caleo, S; Hall, J; Martin, A; Mulray, S; Barter, P; Beilin, L; Collins, R; McNeil, J; Meier, P; Willimott, H; Smithers, D; Wallace, P; Sullivan, D; Keech, APrevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levelsNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE3586
111998Downs, JR; Clearfield, M; Weis, S; Whitney, E; Shapiro, DR; Beere, PA; Langendorfer, A; Stein, EA; Kruyer, W; Gotto, AMPrimary prevention of acute coronary events with lovastatin in men and women with average cholesterol levels – Results of AFCAPS/TexCAPSJAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION3383
122004Grundy, SM; Cleeman, JI; Merz, CNB; Brewer, HB; Clark, LT; Hunninghake, DB; Pasternak, RC; Smith, SC; Stone, NJImplications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelinesCIRCULATION3212
132005Baigent, C; Keech, A; Kearney, PM; Blackwell, L; Buck, G; Pollicino, C; Kirby, A; Sourjina, T; Peto, R; Collins, R; Simes, JEfficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: Prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statinsLANCET3000
141988Mahley, RWApolipoprotein-E – Cholesterol transport protein with expanding role in cell biologySCIENCE2977
151953Zlatkis, A; Zak, B; Boyle, AJA new method for the direct determination of serum cholesterolJOURNAL OF LABORATORY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE2590
161950Sperry, WM; Webb, MA revision of the schoenheimer-sperry method for cholesterol determinationJOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY2516
171968Glomset, JAPlasma lecithin – Cholesterol acyltransferase reactionJOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH2227
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
181979Goldstein, JL; Ho, YK; Basu, SK; Brown, MSBinding-site on macrophages that mediates uptake and degradation of acetylated low-density lipoprotein, producing massive cholesterol depositionPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA2110
192002Ridker, PM; Rifai, N; Rose, L; Buring, JE; Cook, NRComparison of C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular eventsNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE2060
201999Rubins, HB; Robins, SJ; Collins, D; Fye, CL; Anderson, JW; Elam, MB; Faas, FH; Linares, E; Schaefer, EJ; Schectman, G; Wilt, TJ; Wittes, JGemfibrozil for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in men with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterolNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE2055
211983Brown, MS; Goldstein, JLLipoprotein metabolism in the macrophage – Implications for cholesterol deposition in atherosclerosisANNUAL REVIEW OF BIOCHEMISTRY2018
222003Sever, PS; Dahlof, B; Poulter, NR; Wedel, H; Beevers, G; Caulfield, M; Collins, R; Kjeldsen, SE; Kristinsson, A; McInnes, GT; Mehlsen, J; Nieminen, M; O’Brien, E; Ostergren, JPrevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): A multicentre randomised controlled trialLANCET2003
231997Brown, MS; Goldstein, JLThe SREBP pathway: Regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factorCELL1990
242002Horton, JD; Goldstein, JL; Brown, MSSREBPs: Activators of the complete program of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the liverJOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION1903
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
251989Gordon, DJ; Probstfield, JL; Garrison, RJ; Neaton, JD; Castelli, WP; Knoke, JD; Jacobs, DR; Bangdiwala, S; Tyroler, HAHigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular-disease – 4 prospective American-studiesCIRCULATION1888
261971Kannel, WB; Castelli, WP; Gordon, T; Mcnamara, PMSerum cholesterol, lipoproteins, and risk of coronary heart disease – Framingham studyANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE1884
271993Grundy, SM; Bilheimer, D; Chait, A; Clark, LT; Denke, M; Havel, RJ; Hazzard, WR; Hulley, SB; Hunninghake, DB; Kreisberg, RA; Krisetherton, P; Mckenney, JM; Newman, MA; Schaefer, EJ; Sobel, BE; Somelofski, C; Weinstein, MC; Brewer, HB; Cleeman, JI; Donato, KA; Ernst, N; Hoeg, JM; Rifkind, BM; Rossouw, J; Sempos, CT; Gallivan, JM; Harris, MN; Quintadler, LSummary of the 2nd report of the national-cholesterol-education-program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult-treatment-panel-II)JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION1809
281982Warnick, GR; Benderson, J; Albers, JJDextran sulfate-Mg2+ precipitation procedure for quantitation of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolCLINICAL CHEMISTRY1738
291986Castelli, WP; Garrison, RJ; Wilson, PWF; Abbott, RD; Kalousdian, S; Kannel, WBIncidence of coronary heart-disease and lipoprotein cholesterol levels – The Framingham-studyJAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION1715
302000Brown, DA; London, EStructure and function of sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich membrane raftsJOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY1638
312003Collins, R; Armitage, J; Parish, S; Sleight, P; Peto, RMRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin in 5963 people with diabetes: A randomised placebo-controlled trialLANCET1584
321977Castelli, WP; Doyle, JT; Gordon, T; Hames, CG; Hjortland, MC; Hulley, SB; Kagan, A; Zukel, WJHDL cholesterol and other lipids in coronary heart-disease – Cooperative lipoprotein phenotyping studyCIRCULATION1513
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
331986Stamler, J; Wentworth, D; Neaton, JDIs relationship between serum-cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart-disease continuous and graded – Findings in 356,222 primary screenees of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT)JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION1448
341980Alberts, AW; Chen, J; Kuron, G; Hunt, V; Huff, J; Hoffman, C; Rothrock, J; Lopez, M; Joshua, H; Harris, E; Patchett, A; Monaghan, R; Currie, S; Stapley, E; Albersschonberg, G; Hensens, O; Hirshfield, J; Hoogsteen, K; Liesch, J; Springer, JMevinolin – A highly potent competitive inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase and a cholesterol-lowering agentPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES1337
351977Lopesvirella, MF; Stone, P; Ellis, S; Colwell, JACholesterol determination in high-density lipoproteins separated by 3 different methodsCLINICAL CHEMISTRY1292
361965Hegsted, DM; Mcgandy, RB; Myers, ML; Stare, FJQuantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in manAMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION1245
371997Delmas, PD; Bjarnason, NH; Mitlak, BH; Ravoux, AC; Shah, AS; Huster, WJ; Draper, M; Christiansen, CEffects of raloxifene on bone mineral density, serum cholesterol concentrations, and uterine endometrium in postmenopausal womenNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE1201
381978Warnick, GR; Albers, JJComprehensive evaluation of heparin-manganese precipitation procedure for estimating high-density lipoprotein cholesterolJOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH1191
392010Baigent, C; Blackwell, L; Emberson, J; Holland, LE; Reith, C; Bhala, N; Peto, R; Barnes, EH; Keech, A; Simes, J; Collins, REfficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: A meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trialsLANCET1180
401979Kannel, WB; Castelli, WP; Gordon, TCholesterol in the prediction of atherosclerotic disease – New perspectives based on the framingham studyANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE1161
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
411995Fielding, CJ; Fielding, PEMolecular physiology of reverse cholesterol transportJOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH1159
421968Admirand, WH; Small, DMPhysicochemical basis of cholesterol gallstone formation in manJOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION1114
431997Pyorala, K; Pedersen, TR; Kjekshus, J; Faergeman, O; Olsson, AG; Thorgeirsson, GCholesterol lowering with simvastatin improves prognosis of diabetic patients with coronary heart disease – A subgroup analysis of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S)DIABETES CARE1113
441985Yeagle, PLCholesterol and the cell-membraneBIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA1079
451976Basu, SK; Goldstein, JL; Anderson, RGW; Brown, MSDegradation of cationized low-density lipoprotein and regulation of cholesterol-metabolism in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia fibroblastsPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA1071
461934Schoenheimer, R; Sperry, WMA micromethod for the determination of free and combined cholesterolJOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY1068
471995Treasure, CB; Klein, JL; Weintraub, WS; Talley, JD; Stillabower, ME; Kosinski, AS; Zhang, J; Boccuzzi, SJ; Cedarholm, JC; Alexander, RWBeneficial-effects of cholesterol-lowering therapy on the coronary endothelium in patients with coronary-artery diseaseNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE1010
481959Friedman, M; Rosenman, RHAssociation of specific overt behavior pattern with blood and cardiovascular findings – Blood cholesterol level, blood clotting time, incidence of arcus senilis, and clinical coronary artery diseaseJAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION1008
491974Roschlau, P; Bernt, E; Gruber, WEnzymatic determination of total cholesterol in serumZEITSCHRIFT FUR KLINISCHE CHEMIE UND KLINISCHE BIOCHEMIE985
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
501973Richmond, WPreparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from nocardia sp. and its application to enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serumCLINICAL CHEMISTRY946
512003Mensink, RP; Zock, PL; Kester, ADM; Katan, MBEffects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: A meta-analysis of 60 controlled trialsAMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION937
512000Berge, KE; Tian, H; Graf, GA; Yu, LQ; Grishin, NV; Schultz, J; Kwiterovich, P; Shan, B; Barnes, R; Hobbs, HHAccumulation of dietary cholesterol in sitosterolemia caused by mutations in adjacent ABC transportersSCIENCE937
531992Manninen, V; Tenkanen, L; Koskinen, P; Huttunen, JK; Manttari, M; Heinonen, OP; Frick, MHJoint effects of serum triglyceride and LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations on coronary heart-disease risk in the Helsinki heart-study – Implications for treatmentCIRCULATION925
541986Martin, MJ; Browner, WS; Wentworth, D; Hulley, SB; Kuller, LHSerum-cholesterol, blood-pressure, and mortality – Implications from a cohort of 361,662 menLANCET919
551998Peet, DJ; Turley, SD; Ma, WZ; Janowski, BA; Lobaccaro, JMA; Hammer, RE; Mangelsdorf, DJCholesterol and bile acid metabolism are impaired in mice lacking the nuclear oxysterol receptor LXR alphaCELL918
561973Rudel, LL; Morris, MDDetermination of cholesterol using ortho-phthalaldehydeJOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH917
571998Ridker, PM; Rifai, N; Pfeffer, MA; Sacks, FM; Moye, LA; Goldman, S; Flaker, GC; Braunwald, EInflammation, pravastatin, and the risk of coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levelsCIRCULATION897
582000Repa, JJ; Turley, SD; Lobaccaro, JMA; Medina, J; Li, L; Lustig, K; Shan, B; Heyman, RA; Dietschy, JM; Mangelsdorf, DJRegulation of absorption and ABC1-mediated efflux of cholesterol by RXR heterodimersSCIENCE888
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
591995Anderson, TJ; Meredith, IT; Yeung, AC; Frei, B; Selwyn, AP; Ganz, PThe effect of cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant therapy on endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotionNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE883
601972Carlson, LA; Bottiger, LEIschemic heart-disease in relation to fasting values of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol – Stockholm prospective studyLANCET867
611991Stampfer, MJ; Sacks, FM; Salvini, S; Willett, WC; Hennekens, CHA prospective-study of cholesterol, apolipoproteins, and the risk of myocardial-infarctionNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE865
621998Simons, M; Keller, P; De Strooper, B; Beyreuther, K; Dotti, CG; Simons, KCholesterol depletion inhibits the generation of beta-amyloid in hippocampal neuronsPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA859
631999Brown, MS; Goldstein, JLA proteolytic pathway that controls the cholesterol content of membranes, cells, and bloodPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA853
641994Law, MR; Wald, NJ; Thompson, SGBy how much and how quickly does reduction in serum-cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischemic-heart-diseaseBRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL848
651990Vist, MR; Davis, JHPhase-equilibria of cholesterol dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine mixtures – H-2 nuclear magnetic-resonance and differential scanning calorimetryBIOCHEMISTRY842
662004Altmann, SW; Davis, HR; Zhu, LJ; Yao, XR; Hoos, LM; Tetzloff, G; Iyer, SPN; Maguire, M; Golovko, A; Zeng, M; Wang, LQ; Murgolo, N; Graziano, MPNiemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein is critical for intestinal cholesterol absorptionSCIENCE828
671981Brown, MS; Kovanen, PT; Goldstein, JLRegulation of plasma-cholesterol by lipoprotein receptorsSCIENCE825
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
681990Mensink, RP; Katan, MBEffect of dietary trans-fatty-acids on high-density and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy-subjectsNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE821
691976Brown, MS; Goldstein, JLReceptor-mediated control of cholesterol-metabolismSCIENCE815
701997Carstea, ED; Morris, JA; Coleman, KG; Loftus, SK; Zhang, D; Cummings, C; Gu, J; Rosenfeld, MA; Pavan, WJ; Krizman, DB; Nagle, J; Polymeropoulos, MH; Sturley, SL; Ioannou, YA; Higgins, ME; Comly, M; Cooney, A; Brown, A; Kaneski, CR; BlanchetteMackie, EJ; Dwyer, NK; Neufeld, EB; Chang, TY; Liscum, L; Strauss, JF; Ohno, K; Zeigler, M; Carmi, R; Sokol, J; Markie, D; ONeill, RR; vanDiggelen, OP; Elleder, M; Patterson, MC; Brady, RO; Vanier, MT; Pentchev, PG; Tagle, DANiemann-Pick C1 disease gene: Homology to mediators of cholesterol homeostasisSCIENCE797
701996Porter, JA; Young, KE; Beachy, PACholesterol modification of hedgehog signaling proteins in animal developmentSCIENCE797
721983Siedel, J; Hagele, EO; Ziegenhorn, J; Wahlefeld, AWReagent for the enzymatic determination of serum total cholesterol with improved lipolytic efficiencyCLINICAL CHEMISTRY792
732003Law, MR; Wald, NJ; Rudnicka, ARQuantifying effect of statins on low density lipoprotein cholesterol, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke: Systematic review and meta-analysisBRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL786
742001Chawla, A; Boisvert, WA; Lee, CH; Laffitte, BA; Barak, Y; Joseph, SB; Liao, D; Nagy, L; Edwards, PA; Curtiss, LK; Evans, RM; Tontonoz, PA PPAR gamma-LXR-ABCA1 pathway in macrophages is involved in cholesterol efflux and atherogenesisMOLECULAR CELL785
741990Muldoon, MF; Manuck, SB; Matthews, KALowering cholesterol concentrations and mortality: A quantitative review of primary prevention trialsBRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL785
761968Ladbrook, BD; Williams, RM; Chapman, DStudies on lecithin-cholesterol-water interactions by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractionBIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA783
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
771987Anderson, KM; Castelli, WP; Levy, DCholesterol and mortality – 30 years of follow-up from the framingham-studyJAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION781
781973Papahadj, D; Jacobson, K; Nir, S; Isac, TPhase-transitions in phospholipid vesicles – Fluorescence polarization and permeability measurements concerning effect of temperature and cholesterolBIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA780
791965Keys, A; Anderson, JT; Grande, FSerum cholesterol response to changes in diet.4. particular saturated fatty acids in dietMETABOLISM772
802000Simons, K; Ikonen, ECell biology – How cells handle cholesterolSCIENCE766
812005Nissen, SE; Tuzcu, EM; Schoenhagen, P; Crowe, T; Sasiela, WJ; Tsai, J; Orazem, J; Magorien, RD; O’Shaughnessy, C; Ganz, PStatin therapy, LDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and coronary artery diseaseNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE761
811991Kazlauskas, RJ; Weissfloch, ANE; Rappaport, AT; Cuccia, LAA rule to predict which enantiomer of a secondary alcohol reacts faster in reactions catalyzed by cholesterol esterase, lipase from pseudomonas-cepacia, and lipase from candida-rugosaJOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY761
832007Lewington, S; Whitlock, G; Clarke, R; Sherliker, P; Emberson, J; Halsey, J; Qizilbash, N; Peto, R; Collins, RBlood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: A meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deathsLANCET758
842010Duewell, P; Kono, H; Rayner, KJ; Sirois, CM; Vladimer, G; Bauernfeind, FG; Abela, GS; Franchi, L; Nunez, G; Schnurr, M; Espevik, T; Lien, E; Fitzgerald, KA; Rock, KL; Moore, KJ; Wright, SD; Hornung, V; Latz, ENLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystalsNATURE757
842001Mauch, DH; Nagler, K; Schumacher, S; Goritz, C; Muller, EC; Otto, A; Pfrieger, FWCNS synaptogenesis promoted by glia-derived cholesterolSCIENCE757
862011Boden, WE; Probstfield, JL; Anderson, T; Chaitman, BR; Desvignes-Nickens, P; Koprowicz, K; McBride, R; Teo, K; Weintraub, WNiacin in Patients with Low HDL Cholesterol Levels Receiving Intensive Statin TherapyNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE755
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
861957Zak, BSimple rapid microtechnic for serum total cholesterolAMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY755
882001Oliver, WR; Shenk, JL; Snaith, MR; Russell, CS; Plunket, KD; Bodkin, NL; Lewis, MC; Winegar, DA; Sznaidman, ML; Lambert, MH; Xu, HE; Sternbach, DD; Kliewer, SA; Hansen, BC; Willson, TMA selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta agonist promotes reverse cholesterol transportPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA753
891978Carey, MCCritical tables for calculating cholesterol saturation of native bileJOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH750
901999Brown, L; Rosner, B; Willett, WW; Sacks, FMCholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: A meta-analysisAMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION737
912000Pearson, TA; Laurora, I; Chu, H; Kafonek, SThe Lipid Treatment Assessment Project (L-TAP) – A multicenter survey to evaluate the percentages of dyslipidemic, patients receiving lipid-lowering therapy and achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goalsARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE725
921953Pearson, S; Stern, S; Mcgavack, THA rapid, accurate method for the determination of total cholesterol in serumANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY724
931983Mahley, RW; Innerarity, TLLipoprotein receptors and cholesterol homeostasisBIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA722
942001Ridker, PM; Stampfer, MJ; Rifai, NNovel risk factors for systemic atherosclerosis – A comparison of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), and standard cholesterol screening as predictors of peripheral arterial diseaseJAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION719
951989Iso, H; Jacobs, DR; Wentworth, D; Neaton, JD; Cohen, JDSerum-cholesterol levels and 6-year mortality from stroke in 350,977 men screened for the multiple risk factor intervention trialNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE717
Table 1

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
962008Kathiresan, S; Melander, O; Guiducci, C; Surti, A; Burtt, NP; Rieder, MJ; Cooper, GM; Roos, C; Voight, BF; Havulinna, AS; Wahlstrand, B; Hedner, T; Corella, D; Tai, ES; Ordovas, JM; Berglund, G; Vartiainen, E; Jousilahti, P; Hedblad, B; Taskinen, MR; Newton-Cheh, C; Salomaa, V; Peltonen, L; Groop, L; Altshuler, DM; Orho-Melander, MSix new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humansNATURE GENETICS715
972011Baigent, C; Landray, MJ; Reith, C; Emberson, J; Wheeler, DC; Tomson, C; Wanner, C; Krane, V; Cass, A; Craig, J; Neal, B; Jiang, LX; Hooi, LS; Levin, A; Agodoa, L; Gaziano, M; Kasiske, B; Walker, R; Massy, ZA; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Krairittichai, U; Ophascharoensuk, V; Fellstrom, B; Holdaas, H; Tesar, V; Wiecek, A; Grobbee, D; de Zeeuw, D; Gronhagen-Riska, C; Dasgupta, T; Lewis, D; Herrington, W; Mafham, M; Majoni, W; Wallendszus, K; Grimm, R; Pedersen, T; Tobert, J; Armitage, J; Baxter, A; Bray, C; Chen, YP; Chen, ZM; Hill, M; Knott, C; Parish, S; Simpson, D; Sleight, P; Young, A; Collins, RThe effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): A randomised placebo-controlled trialLANCET711
972001Chinetti, G; Lestavel, S; Bocher, V; Remaley, AT; Neve, B; Torra, IP; Teissier, E; Minnich, A; Jaye, M; Duverger, N; Brewer, HB; Fruchart, JC; Clavey, V; Staels, BPPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma activators induce cholesterol removal from human macrophage foam cells through stimulation of the ABCA1 pathwayNATURE MEDICINE711
991960Burstein, M; Samaille, JSur un dosage rapide du cholesterol lie aux alpha-lipoproteines et aux beta-lipoproteines du serumCLINICA CHIMICA ACTA706
1001969Hinckley, CCParamagnetic shifts in solutions of cholesterol and dipyridine adduct of trisdipivalomethanatoeuropium(III). A shift reagentJOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY700
Table 2

Most-cited papers in cholesterol between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2015

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
12010Baigent, C; Blackwell, L; Emberson, J; Holland, LE; Reith, C; Bhala, N; Peto, R; Barnes, EH; Keech, A; Simes, J; Collins, REfficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: A meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trialsLANCET1228
22011Boden, WE; Probstfield, JL; Anderson, T; Chaitman, BR; Desvignes-Nickens, P; Koprowicz, K; McBride, R; Teo, K; Weintraub, WNiacin in Patients with Low HDL Cholesterol Levels Receiving Intensive Statin TherapyNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE797
32010Duewell, P; Kono, H; Rayner, KJ; Sirois, CM; Vladimer, G; Bauernfeind, FG; Abela, GS; Franchi, L; Nunez, G; Schnurr, M; Espevik, T; Lien, E; Fitzgerald, KA; Rock, KL; Moore, KJ; Wright, SD; Hornung, V; Latz, ENLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystalsNATURE790
42007Lewington, S; Whitlock, G; Clarke, R; Sherliker, P; Emberson, J; Halsey, J; Qizilbash, N; Peto, R; Collins, RBlood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: A meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deathsLANCET776
52011Baigent, C; Landray, MJ; Reith, C; Emberson, J; Wheeler, DC; Tomson, C; Wanner, C; Krane, V; Cass, A; Craig, J; Neal, B; Jiang, LX; Hooi, LS; Levin, A; Agodoa, L; Gaziano, M; Kasiske, B; Walker, R; Massy, ZA; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Krairittichai, U; Ophascharoensuk, V; Fellstrom, B; Holdaas, H; Tesar, V; Wiecek, A; Grobbee, D; de Zeeuw, D; Gronhagen-Riska, C; Dasgupta, T; Lewis, D; Herrington, W; Mafham, M; Majoni, W; Wallendszus, K; Grimm, R; Pedersen, T; Tobert, J; Armitage, J; Baxter, A; Bray, C; Chen, YP; Chen, ZM; Hill, M; Knott, C; Parish, S; Simpson, D; Sleight, P; Young, A; Collins, RThe effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): A randomised placebo-controlled trialLANCET739
62008Kathiresan, S; Melander, O; Guiducci, C; Surti, A; Burtt, NP; Rieder, MJ; Cooper, GM; Roos, C; Voight, BF; Havulinna, AS; Wahlstrand, B; Hedner, T; Corella, D; Tai, ES; Ordovas, JM; Berglund, G; Vartiainen, E; Jousilahti, P; Hedblad, B; Taskinen, MR; Newton-Cheh, C; Salomaa, V; Peltonen, L; Groop, L; Altshuler, DM; Orho-Melander, MSix new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humansNATURE GENETICS731
72007Barter, P; Gotto, AM; LaRosa, JC; Maroni, J; Szarek, M; Grundy, SM; Kastelein, JJP; Bittner, V; Fruchart, JCHDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular eventsNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE710
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
82008Kearney, PM; Blackwell, L; Collins, R; Keech, A; Simes, J; Peto, R; Armitage, J; Baigent, CEfficacy of cholesterol-lowering therapy in 18,686 people with diabetes in 14 randomised trials of statins: A meta-analysisLANCET647
92011Khera, AV; Cuchel, M; de la Llera-Moya, M; Rodrigues, A; Burke, MF; Jafri, K; French, BC; Phillips, JA; Mucksavage, ML; Wilensky, RL; Mohler, ER; Rothblat, GH; Rader, DJCholesterol Efflux Capacity, High-Density Lipoprotein Function, and AtherosclerosisNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE625
102012Voight, BF; Peloso, GM; Orho-Melander, M; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Barbalic, M; Jensen, MK; Hindy, G; Holm, H; Ding, EL; Johnson, T; Schunkert, H; Samani, NJ; Clarke, R; Hopewell, JC; Thompson, JF; Li, MY; Thorleifsson, G; Newton-Cheh, C; Musunuru, K; Pirruccello, JP; Saleheen, D; Chen, L; Stewart, AFR; Schillert, A; Thorsteinsdottir, U; Thorgeirsson, G; Anand, S; Engert, JC; Morgan, T; Spertus, J; Stoll, M; Berger, K; Martinelli, N; Girelli, D; McKeown, PP; Patterson, CC; Epstein, SE; Devaney, J; Burnett, MS; Mooser, V; Ripatti, S; Surakka, I; Nieminen, MS; Sinisalo, J; Lokki, ML; Perola, M; Havulinna, A; de Faire, U; Gigante, B; Ingelsson, E; Zeller, T; Wild, P; de Bakker, PIW; Klungel, OH; Maitland-van der Zee, AH; Peters, BJM; de Boer, A; Grobbee, DE; Kamphuisen, PW; Deneer, VHM; Elbers, CC; Onland-Moret, NC; Hofker, MH; Wijmenga, C; Verschuren, WMM; Boer, JMA; van der Schouw, YT; Rasheed, A; Frossard, P; Demissie, S; Willer, C; Do, R; Ordovas, JM; Abecasis, GR; Boehnke, M; Mohlke, KL; Daly, MJ; Guiducci, C; Burtt, NP; Surti, A; Gonzalez, E; Purcell, S; Gabriel, S; Marrugat, J; Peden, J; Erdmann, J; Diemert, P; Willenborg, C; Konig, IR; Fischer, M; Hengstenberg, C; Ziegler, A; Buysschaert, I; Lambrechts, D; Van de Werf, F; Fox, KA; El Mokhtari, NE; Rubin, D; Schrezenmeir, J; Schreiber, S; Schafer, A; Danesh, J; Blankenberg, S; Roberts, R; McPherson, R; Watkins, H; Hall, AS; Overvad, K; Rimm, E; Boerwinkle, E; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Cupples, LA; Reilly, MP; Melander, O; Mannucci, PM;Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction: A mendelian randomisation studyLANCET535
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
Ardissino, D; Siscovick, D; Elosua, R; Stefansson, K; O’Donnell, CJ; Salomaa, V; Rader, DJ; Peltonen, L; Schwartz, SM; Altshuler, D; Kathiresan, S
112014Stone, NJ; Robinson, JG; Lichtenstein, AH; Merz, CNB; Blum, CB; Eckel, RH; Goldberg, AC; Gordon, D; Levy, D; Lloyd-Jones, DM; McBride, P; Schwartz, JS; Shero, ST; Smith, SC; Watson, K; Wilson, PWF2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice GuidelinesCIRCULATION533
122012Mihaylova, B; Emberson, J; Blackwell, L; Keech, A; Simes, J; Barnes, EH; Voysey, M; Gray, A; Collins, R; Baigent, C; de Lemos, J; Braunwald, E; Blazing, M; Murphy, S; Downs, JR; Gotto, A; Clearfield, M; Holdaas, H; Gordon, D; Davis, B; Koren, M; Dahlof, B; Poulter, N; Sever, P; Knopp, RH; Fellstrom, B; Holdaas, H; Jardine, A; Schmieder, R; Zannad, F; Goldbourt, U; Kaplinsky, E; Colhoun, HM; Betteridge, DJ; Durrington, PN; Hitman, GA; Fuller, J; Neil, A; Wanner, C; Krane, V; Sacks, F; Moye, L; Pfeffer, M; Hawkins, CM; Braunwald, E; Kjekshus, J; Wedel, H; Wikstrand, J; Barter, P; Keech, A; Tavazzi, L; Maggioni, A; Marchioli, R; Tognoni, G; Franzosi, MG; Maggioni, A; Bloomfield, H; Robins, S; Collins, R; Armitage, J; Keech, A; Parish, S; Peto, R; Sleight, P; Pedersen, TR; Ridker, PM; Holman, R; Meade, T; Simes, J; Keech, A; MacMahon, S; Marschner, I; Tonkin, A; Shaw, J; Serruys, PW; Nakamura, H; Knatterud, G; Furberg, C; Byington, R; Macfarlane, P; Cobbe, S; Ford, I; Murphy, M; Blauw, GJ; Packard, C; Shepherd, J; Kjekshus, J; Pedersen, T; Wilhelmsen, L; Braunwald, E; Cannon, C; Murphy, S; Collins, R; Armitage, J; Bowman, L; Parish, S; Peto, R; Sleight, P; Baigent, C; Landray, M; Collins, R; La Rosa, J; Rossouw, J; Probstfield, J; Shepherd, J; Cobbe, S; Macfarlane, P; Ford, IThe effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease: Meta-analysis of individual data from 27 randomised trialsLANCET496
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
132014Stone, NJ; Robinson, JG; Lichtenstein, AH; Merz, CNB; Blum, CB; Eckel, RH; Goldberg, AC; Gordon, D; Levy, D; Lloyd-Jones, DM; McBride, P; Schwartz, JS; Shero, ST; Smith, SC; Watson, K; Wilson, PWF2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice GuidelinesJOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY475
142009Ridker, PM; Danielson, E; Fonseca, FAH; Genest, J; Gotto, AM; Kastelein, JJP; Koenig, W; Libby, P; Lorenzatti, AJ; MacFadyen, JG; Nordestgaard, BG; Shepherd, J; Willerson, JT; Glynn, RJReduction in C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular event rates after initiation of rosuvastatin: A prospective study of the JUPITER trialLANCET453
152008Hanson, MA; Cherezov, V; Griffith, MT; Roth, CB; Jaakola, VP; Chien, EYT; Velasquez, J; Kuhn, P; Stevens, RCA specific cholesterol binding site is established by the 2.8 angstrom structure of the human beta(2)-adrenergic receptorSTRUCTURE435
162010Rayner, KJ; Suarez, Y; Davalos, A; Parathath, S; Fitzgerald, ML; Tamehiro, N; Fisher, EA; Moore, KJ; Fernandez-Hernando, CMiR-33 Contributes to the Regulation of Cholesterol HomeostasisSCIENCE414
172008Ikonen, ECellular cholesterol trafficking and compartmentalizationNATURE REVIEWS MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY377
182008Kathiresan, S; Melander, O; Anevski, D; Guiducci, C; Burtt, NP; Roos, C; Hirschhorn, JN; Berglund, G; Hedblad, B; Groop, L; Altshuler, DM; Newton-Cheh, C; Orho-Melander, MPolymorphisms associated with cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular eventsNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE367
192007Nicholls, SJ; Tuzcu, EM; Sipahi, I; Grasso, AW; Schoenhagen, P; Hu, T; Wolski, K; Crowe, T; Desai, MY; Hazen, SL; Kapadia, SR; Nissen, SEStatins, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and regression of coronary atherosclerosisJAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION363
202010Musunuru, K; Strong, A; Frank-Kamenetsky, M; Lee, NE; Ahfeldt, T; Sachs, KV; Li, XY; Li, H; Kuperwasser, N; Ruda, VM; Pirruccello, JP; Muchmore, B; Prokunina-Olsson, L; Hall, JL; Schadt, EE; Morales, CR; Lund-Katz, S; Phillips, MC; Wong, J; Cantley, W; Racie, T; Ejebe, KG;From noncoding variant to phenotype via SORT1 at the 1p13 cholesterol locusNATURE361
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
Orho-Melander, M; Melander, O; Koteliansky, V; Fitzgerald, K; Krauss, RM; Cowan, CA; Kathiresan, S; Rader, DJ
212007Zidovetzki, R; Levitan, IUse of cyclodextrins to manipulate plasma membrane cholesterol content: Evidence, misconceptions and control strategiesBIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-BIOMEMBRANES336
222010Najafi-Shoushtari, SH; Kristo, F; Li, YX; Shioda, T; Cohen, DE; Gerszten, RE; Naar, AMMicroRNA-33 and the SREBP Host Genes Cooperate to Control Cholesterol HomeostasisSCIENCE333
232006Lee, JK; Grace, KA; Taylor, AJEffect of a pharmacy care program on medication adherence and persistence, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol – A randomized controlled trialJAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION328
242010Raal, FJ; Santos, RD; Blom, DJ; Marais, AD; Charng, MJ; Cromwell, WC; Lachmann, RH; Gaudet, D; Tan, JL; Chasan-Taber, S; Tribble, DL; Flaim, JD; Crooke, STMipomersen, an apolipoprotein B synthesis inhibitor, for lowering of LDL cholesterol concentrations in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialLANCET307
252011Chapman, MJ; Ginsberg, HN; Amarenco, P; Andreotti, F; Boren, J; Catapano, AL; Descamps, OS; Fisher, E; Kovanen, PT; Kuivenhoven, JA; Lesnik, P; Masana, L; Nordestgaard, BG; Ray, KK; Reiner, Z; Taskinen, MR; Tokgozoglu, L; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Watts, GFTriglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: Evidence and guidance for managementEUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL302
262008Frank-Kamenetsky, M; Grefhorst, A; Anderson, NN; Racie, TS; Bramlage, B; Akinc, A; Butler, D; Charisse, K; Dorkin, R; Fan, Y; Gamba-Vitalo, C; Hadwiger, P; Jayaraman, M; John, M; Jayaprakash, KN; Maier, M; Nechev, L; Rajeev, KG; Read, T; Rohl, I; Soutschek, J; Tan, P; Wong, J; Wang, G; Zimmermann, T; de Fougerolles, A; Vornlocher, HP; Langer, R; Anderson, DG; Manoharan, M; Koteliansky, V; Horton, JD; Fitzgerald, KTherapeutic RNAi targeting PCSK9 acutely lowers plasma cholesterol in rodents and LDL cholesterol in nonhuman primatesPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA289
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
262006Kalaany, NY; Mangelsdorf, DJLXRs and FXR: The Yin and Yang of cholesterol and fat metabolismANNUAL REVIEW OF PHYSIOLOGY289
282008Pandey, AK; Sassetti, CMMycobacterial persistance requires the utilization of host cholesterolPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA285
282007Wang, X; Collins, HL; Ranalletta, M; Fuki, IV; Billheimer, JT; Rothblat, GH; Tall, AR; Rader, DJMacrophage ABCA1 and ABCG1, but not SR-BI, promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivoJOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION285
302006Kotowski, IK; Pertsemlidis, A; Luke, A; Cooper, RS; Vega, GL; Cohen, JC; Hobbs, HHA spectrum of PCSK9 Alleles contributes to plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterolAMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS274
312012Stein, EA; Mellis, S; Yancopoulos, GD; Stahl, N; Logan, D; Smith, WB; Lisbon, E; Gutierrez, M; Webb, C; Wu, R; Du, YL; Kranz, T; Gasparino, E; Swergold, GDEffect of a Monoclonal Antibody to PCSK9 on LDL CholesterolNEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE267
322009Zelcer, N; Hong, C; Boyadjian, R; Tontonoz, PLXR Regulates Cholesterol Uptake Through Idol-Dependent Ubiquitination of the LDL ReceptorSCIENCE266
322007Lorenzo, C; Williams, K; Hunt, KJ; Haffner, SMThe National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III, International Diabetes Federation, and World Health Organization definitions of the metabolic syndrome as predictors of incident cardiovascular disease and diabetesDIABETES CARE266
342010Klaassen, CD; Aleksunes, LMXenobiotic, Bile Acid, and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and RegulationPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEWS265
352011Carette, JE; Raaben, M; Wong, AC; Herbert, AS; Obernosterer, G; Mulherkar, N; Kuehne, AI; Kranzusch, PJ; Griffin, AM; Ruthel, G; Dal Cin, P; Dye, JM; Whelan, SP; Chandran, K; Brummelkamp, TREbola virus entry requires the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1NATURE259
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
362006Cuchel, M; Rader, DJMacrophage reverse cholesterol transport – Key to the regression of atherosclerosis?CIRCULATION249
372012Stein, EA; Gipe, D; Bergeron, J; Gaudet, D; Weiss, R; Dufour, R; Wu, R; Pordy, REffect of a monoclonal antibody to PCSK9, REGN727/SAR236553, to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia on stable statin dose with or without ezetimibe therapy: A phase 2 randomised controlled trialLANCET243
382010Rajamaki, K; Lappalainen, J; Oorni, K; Valimaki, E; Matikainen, S; Kovanen, PT; Eklund, KKCholesterol Crystals Activate the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human Macrophages: A Novel Link between Cholesterol Metabolism and InflammationPLOS ONE242
382006Shepherd, J; Breazna, A; Barter, P; LaRosa, J; Carmena, R; Grundy, S; Deedwania, P; Waters, D; Fruchart, JC; Haffner, S; Hsia, JEffect of lowering LDL cholesterol substantially below currently recommended levels in patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes – The treating to new targets (TNT) studyDIABETES CARE242
402006Barter, PJ; Ballantyne, CM; Carmena, R; Cabezas, MC; Chapman, MJ; Couture, P; De Graaf, J; Durrington, PN; Faergeman, O; Frohlich, J; Furberg, CD; Gagne, C; Haffner, SM; Humphries, SE; Jungner, I; Krauss, RM; Kwiterovich, P; Marcovina, S; Packard, CJ; Pearson, TA; Reddy, KS; Rosenson, R; Sarrafzadegan, N; Sniderman, AD; Stalenhoef, AF; Stein, E; Talmud, PJ; Tonkin, AM; Walldius, G; Williams, KMSApo B versus cholesterol in estimating cardiovascular risk and in guiding therapy: Report of the thirty-person/ten-country panelJOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE238
412012Rosenson, RS; Brewer, HB; Davidson, WS; Fayad, ZA; Fuster, V; Goldstein, J; Hellerstein, M; Jiang, XC; Phillips, MC; Rader, DJ; Remaley, AT; Rothblat, GH; Tall, AR; Yvan-Charvet, LCholesterol Efflux and Atheroprotection Advancing the Concept of Reverse Cholesterol TransportCIRCULATION236
422008Tall, AR; Yvan-Charvet, L; Terasaka, N; Pagler, T; Wang, NHDL, ABC transporters, and cholesterol efflux: Implications for the treatment of atherosclerosisCELL METABOLISM235
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
432011Rayner, KJ; Sheedy, FJ; Esau, CC; Hussain, FN; Temel, RE; Parathath, S; van Gils, JM; Rayner, AJ; Chang, AN; Suarez, Y; Fernandez-Hernando, C; Fisher, EA; Moore, KJAntagonism of miR-33 in mice promotes reverse cholesterol transport and regression of atherosclerosisJOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION230
442006Gelissen, IC; Harris, M; Rye, KA; Quinn, C; Brown, AJ; Kockx, M; Cartland, S; Packianathan, M; Kritharides, L; Jessup, WABCA1 and ABCG1 synergize to mediate cholesterol export to apoA-IARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY227
442006Chang, TY; Chang, CCY; Ohgami, N; Yamauchi, YCholesterol sensing, trafficking, and esterificationANNUAL REVIEW OF CELL AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY227
462008Tall, ARCholesterol efflux pathways and other potential mechanisms involved in the athero-protective effect of high density lipoproteinsJOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE221
462006Mari, M; Caballero, F; Colell, A; Morales, A; Caballeria, J; Fernandez, A; Enrich, C; Fernandez-Checa, JC; Garcia-Ruiz, CMitochondrial free cholesterol loading sensitizes to TNF- and Fas-mediated steatohepatitisCELL METABOLISM221
482006Naik, SU; Wang, X; Da Silva, JS; Jaye, M; Macphee, CH; Reilly, MP; Billheimer, JT; Rothblat, GH; Rader, DJPharmacological activation of liver X receptors promotes reverse cholesterol transport in vivoCIRCULATION220
492009Briel, M; Ferreira-Gonzalez, I; You, JJ; Karanicolas, PJ; Akl, EA; Wu, P; Blechacz, B; Bassler, D; Wei, XG; Sharman, A; Whitt, I; da Silva, SA; Khalid, Z; Nordmann, AJ; Zhou, Q; Walter, SD; Vale, N; Bhatnagar, N; O’Regan, C; Mills, EJ; Bucher, HC; Montori, VM; Guyatt, GHAssociation between change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality: Systematic review and meta-regression analysisBRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL218
502007Akuta, N; Suzuki, F; Kawamura, Y; Yatsuji, H; Sezaki, H; Suzuki, Y; Hosaka, T; Kobayashi, M; Kobayashi, M; Arase, Y; Ikeda, K; Kumada, HPredictive factors of early and sustained responses to peginterferon plus ribavirin combination therapy in Japanese patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b: Amino acid substitutions in the core region and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levelsJOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY217
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
502007Van der Geize, R; Yam, K; Heuser, T; Wilbrink, MH; Hara, H; Anderton, MC; Sim, E; Dijkhuizen, L; Davies, JE; Mohn, WW; Eltis, LDA gene cluster encoding cholesterol catabolism in a soil actinomycete provides insight into Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival in macrophagesPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA217
522006Oram, JF; Vaughan, AMATP-binding cassette cholesterol transporters and cardiovascular diseaseCIRCULATION RESEARCH215
532008Frikke-Schmidt, R; Nordestgaard, BG; Stene, MCA; Sethi, AA; Remaley, AT; Schnohr, P; Grande, P; Tybjaerg-Hansen, AAssociation of loss-of-function mutations in the ABCA1 gene with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and risk of ischemic heart diseaseJAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION214
542008Sandhu, MS; Waterworth, DM; Debenham, SL; Wheeler, E; Papadakis, K; Zhao, JH; Song, KJ; Yuan, X; Johnson, T; Ashford, S; Inouye, M; Luben, R; Sims, M; Hadley, D; McArdle, W; Barter, P; Kesaniemi, YA; Mahley, RW; McPherson, R; Grundy, SM; Bingham, SA; Khaw, KT; Loos, RJF; Waeber, G; Barroso, I; Strachan, DP; Deloukas, P; Vollenweider, P; Wareham, NJ; Mooser, VLDL-cholesterol concentrations: A genome-wide association studyLANCET210
542006Deedwania, P; Barter, P; Carmena, R; Fruchart, JC; Grundy, SM; Haffner, S; Kastelein, JJP; LaRosa, JC; Schachner, H; Shepherd, J; Waters, DDReduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with coronary heart disease and metabolic syndrome: Analysis of the Treating to New Targets studyLANCET210
562011Griffin, JE; Gawronski, JD; DeJesus, MA; Ioerger, TR; Akerley, BJ; Sassetti, CMHigh-Resolution Phenotypic Profiling Defines Genes Essential for Mycobacterial Growth and Cholesterol CatabolismPLOS PATHOGENS208
562007Mehta, JL; Sanada, N; Hu, CP; Chen, JW; Dandapat, A; Sugawara, F; Satoh, H; Inoue, K; Kawase, Y; Jishage, K; Suzuki, H; Takeya, M; Schnackenberg, L; Beger, R; Hermonat, PL; Thomas, M; Sawamura, TDeletion of LOX-1 reduces atherogenesis in LDLR knockout mice fed high cholesterol dietCIRCULATION RESEARCH208
582012Raal, F; Scott, R; Somaratne, R; Bridges, I; Li, G; Wasserman, SM; Stein, EALow-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of AMG 145, a Monoclonal Antibody toCIRCULATION206
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Serine Protease in Patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: the Reduction of LDL-C with PCSK9 Inhibition in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Disorder (RUTHERFORD) Randomized Trial
592011Nicholls, SJ; Brewer, HB; Kastelein, JJP; Krueger, KA; Wang, MD; Shao, MY; Hu, B; McErlean, E; Nissen, SEEffects of the CETP Inhibitor Evacetrapib Administered as Monotherapy or in Combination with Statins on HDL and LDL Cholesterol A Randomized Controlled TrialJAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION204
602008Miller, M; Cannon, CP; Murphy, SA; Qin, J; Ray, KK; Braunwald, EImpact of triglyceride levels beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol after acute coronary syndrome in the PROVE IT-TIMI 22 trialJOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY203
612012Sainz, B; Barretto, N; Martin, DN; Hiraga, N; Imamura, M; Hussain, S; Marsh, KA; Yu, XM; Chayama, K; Alrefai, WA; Uprichard, SLIdentification of the Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 cholesterol absorption receptor as a new hepatitis C virus entry factorNATURE MEDICINE201
622010Armitage, J; Bowman, L; Wallendszus, K; Bulbulia, R; Rahimi, K; Haynes, R; Parish, S; Peto, R; Collins, R; Meade, T; Sleight, P; Collins, R; Armitage, J; Bowman, L; Parish, S; Peto, R; Barton, J; Bray, C; Wincott, E; Dayanandan, R; Clarke, R; Graham, I; Simpson, D; Warlow, C; Wilken, D; Tobert, J; Mushner, T; Doll, R; Wilhelmsen, L; Fox, K; Hill, C; Sandercock, P; Webster, J; Henderson, J; Nixon, A; Lackie, S; Thompson, J; Brown, M; Blackwood, S; Morgan, M; Rhoden, W; Saeed, B; Houghton, M; Nicholson, A; Simpson, C; Hoburn, B; Cooper, I; Gallivan, A; Pickerell, E; Hancock, J; Watkinson, J; Ryder, B; Jones, S; Burbridge, W; Kitchen, M; Leary, HO; Verow, C; Meynell, L; Rollinson, L; Bain, S; Jones, A; Jewkes, C; Russon, C; Bateson, M; Gill, P; Nicol, J; Bayly, G;Intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol with 80 mg versus 20 mg simvastatin daily in 12,064 survivors of myocardial infarction: A double-blind randomised trialLANCET199
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
Stansbie, D; Andrews, G; Halestrap, M; Meredith, J; Best, R; Appleyard, D; Briggs, R; Wareing, H; Holmes, K; Holt, J; Kenyon, M; White, C; Khalifa, M; Newton, D; Wass, A; Watkinson, R; Creamer, J; Anderson, S; Bethell, A; Butler, C; Castro, K; Washington, M; Weston, M; Cleaver, K; Machin, J; Wray, R; Sinclair, J; Van Aalst, A; Been, M; Mattu, R; Bates, D; Burke, A; Gill, L; Walton, E; Cowley, M; Robson, H; Graham, A; Rose, G; Kerr, M; Mallinson, J; Peascod, B; Donnelly, R; Kalk, J; Scott, A; Gibson, T; Hannah, J; Henshaw, L; Margetts, M; Pearson, N; Frost, S; Murray, S; Marshall, A; Went, J; Inman, A; Simmonds, J; Teasdale, A; Kemp, T; Roberts, G; Kooner, J; Cahill, S; Lloyd, M; Molloy, O; Wigley, J; Galvin, M; Wilder, C; Lindley, R; Shaw, S; Swainson, C; Hillis, L; Johnston, J; Johnstone, A; Miller, D; Kennedy, M; Mushahwar, S; Savage, M; Appleyard, D; Ayer, G; Schofield, J; Greenhalgh, S; Parks, J; Speak, S; Coulson, C; Papouchado, M; Carpenter, R; Wisby, J; Cobbe, S; Campbell, C; Hunter, J; Young, H; Gallacher, M; Lindsay, D; Halliday, A; Godfrey, S; Donahoo, LO; Chambers, J; Wierzbicki, A; Jones, A; Parkin, D; Nwafor, K; Oldroyd, K; Vallance, B; Cunningham, N; Moreland, G; Oldroyd, C; Young, H; Crawford, M; Hillson, R; Knott, K; Mahabir, N; Crouch, A; MacDonald, Y; Bellamy, C; Green, J; Brown, L; Heron, J; Jones, N; Roberts, M; Hainsworth, D; Williams, J; Barnes, P; Fitchet, A; Longworth, C; Davidson, J; Irvine, N; Oliver, R; Pond, C; Nuttall, M; Mostyn, RL; Brown, M; Barrowcliffe, J; Blackburn, S; Furnell, W; Webster, S; Wheatley, L; Hudson, I; Pohl, J; Nicholson, S; Mallya, S; Nash, M; Spruce, J; Bonner, A; Leather, J; Searle, A; Davies, E; Egdell, R; Price, B; Bennett, AT; Horton, S; Cunnington, A; Giles, P; Sidaway, J; Tomlinson, L; Walton, E; Hawkins, L; Long, J; Murphy, J; Brennan, G; Boon, M; Cassidy, S; Rodger, C; Hunter, J; McNeilly, A; Moreland, G; Radcliffe, A; Farrer, M; Bluett, J; Cowell, L; Farrell, A; Gilroy, S;
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
Warren, S; MacConnell, T; Burtchaell, S; Williams, L; Rylance, P; Hodgson, A; Hill, KK; Robinson, L; Smallwood, A; Lomas, S; Ball, J; Benbow, S; Hardy, K; Gerrard, M; Langley, C; Beattie, M; Fagan, C; Green, B; Pringle, T; Hanna, H; Mackintosh, A; Watson, E; Swan, J; Appleyard, D; McSorland, D; Thompson, G; Neill, CO; Curless, R; Doig, C; McKenna, P; Martin, J; Murdy, J; Scott, A; Martin, S; Birkhead, J; Donnell, JO; Fox, C; Dixon, S; Hassall, A; Tanqueray, E; Vass, D; Cosford, I; Elderkin, M; McKenzie, P; Gray, T; Appleyard, D; Holmshaw, N; McKinnon, A; Bennett, AT; Ali, I; Stephens, N; Banfield, A; Chester, L; Wiseman, J; Harrisingh, N; Patel, R; Thaker, P; Armitage, J; Watkins, H; Beebe, S; Fitzgerald, J; Godden, J; Lawson, A; Lochhead, H; Taylor, A; Turner, S; Rowlands, D; Cooper, A; Graham, J; Hennessy, S; Rashid, T; Smith, C; Nyman, C; Adams, J; Hardwick, A; Buck, P; Pattinson, C; Trigg, J; McLeod, A; Gardner, S; Haimes, L; Orr, S; Johns, S; Capps, N; Cook, A; Donaldson, D; Keighley, C; Stiles, C; Asbridge, S; Buller, N; Townend, J; Hooks, J; Jewkes, C; Jones, H; Watson, R; Salt, P; Francis, M; MacLeod, D; Allcoat, P; Stuart, R; Reynolds, T; Maiden, J; Reynolds, J; Murray, D; MacFadyen, R; Potts, L; Smith, A; King, L; Muthusamy, R; Jones, M; Lawan, M; Nixon, J; Wasnidge, L; Weston, C; Hutchesson, A; Evans, J; Morris, K; Oultram, M; Armitage, M; Skule, R; Cope, C; Page, M; Fleming, S; Andain, K; Parrett, M; Soper, R; MacLeod, K; Gordon, K; Green, E; Havill, S; Stewart, V; Allen, S; Henson, S; Rimmer, C; Davies, J; Javed, M; Norris, A; Williams, M; Khan, S; Dobie, G; Fitton, J; Gilbert, S; Davenport, C; Williamson, M; Vincent, R; Joyce, E; Reckless, J; Bishop, A; Brice, L; Carpenter, R; Field, P; Shute, C; Pope, S; Stacey, D; Findlay, I; Campbell, C; Hunter, J; Gallacher, M; Labib, M; Hodgson, A; Sidaway, J; Beddoe, L; Reed, J; Barron, J; Odemuyiwa, O; Bradford, B; McDonnell, M; West, L;
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
Beck, P; Gilbey, S; Clarkson, A; Drury, K; Hall, S; Quartey, D; Whittam, B; Lund, D; Stott, L; Griffiths, H; Appleyard, D; Fitzgerald, J; Kudarenko, A; Watkins, J; Golledge, S; Pottle, J; Little, S; Paine, B; Shears, C; Baxter, M; Wilkinson, P; Chambers, R; Hamper, C; Hollister, E; Ramsay, H; Barber, J; Hopkins, T; Hughes, L; Whittaker, JE; Verow, C; Burke, RL; Lloyd, C; Dhawan, J; John, J; Bramley, D; Catchpole, A; Colecchia, A; Gray, C; LeQuelenec, M; Remington, D; Wiseman, J; Gray, C; Anderson, P; Woolass, R; Thomas, P; Weston, C; Guy, F; Lynch, J; Thomas, R; Coates, S; Gait, M; Waller, D; Elkins, K; Franklin, M; Moore, L; Signy, M; Chilton, R; Joyce, E; Wrapson, C; Wiltshire, C; Lewis, P; Curtis, J; Toole, JO; Scanlon, S; Carey, C; Dobson, L; Gould, M; Mansfield, H; Ranson, G; Rodaway, M; Germon, J; Cockcroft, J; McDowell, I; Field, R; Whiting, J; Dennison, C; Roberts, D; Cooper, M; Davies, C; Fitton, J; Hutt, L; Radford, L; Ward, L; Williamson, M; McAlpine, H; Dougall, H; Robertson, L; Scott, L; Young, H; Humphrey, P; Saminaden, S; Watling, D; Davies, J; Owen, L; Clements, M; Walker, E; Atkins, E; Lindley, R; Shaw, T; Swainson, C; Webb, D; MacCallum, H; Markie, D; Melville, V; Adamson, L; Johnston, A; Polukord, E; Rudden, M; Hogan, J; Lie, F; Badger, V; Duffy, S; Mitchell, C; MacQueen, E; Baxter, R; Campbell, S; McDonald, L; Wood, H; Munro, A; Pycock, C; Cadwell, J; Doughty, A; Harvey, M; Price, S; Aldersley, M; Lock, S; Pendrey, P; Barton, J; Bray, C; Dayanandan, R; Wmcott, E; Achiri, P; Anderson, C; Benham, J; Bojowsky, H; Boller, I; Booker, V; Brewer, A; Brindley, G; Cobb, L; Collett, A; Corbett, M; Crowther, J; Pour, SD; Edmunds, K; Fortun, A; Grimsey, T; Harwood, C; Hope, C; Jones, R; Jones, S; Kidney, K; King, M; Knight, S; Lang, H; Madgwick, Z; Marsden, C; Matthews, C; Matthewson, M; Miller, J; Moss, B; Mostefai, Y; Murphy, K; Naughten, A; Pickworth, S; Radley, A; Southren, S; Sutherland, S; Tong, R; Turakani, M;
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
Umbrath, M; Armitage, J; Baigent, C; Bowman, L; Bulbulia, R; Chen, Z; Clarke, R; Collins, R; Dunachie, S; Dasgupta, T; Haynes, R; Landray, M; Mafham, M; Majoni, W; Murray, C; Naessens, K; Porter, T; Rahimi, K; Reith, C; Clarke, MT; Turnbull, C; Walter, K; Harding, P; Lay, M; Wallendszus, K; Berry, C; Bettesworth, H; Booth, J; Bowes, M; Bu, Y; Charles, A; Cody, A; Cox, J; Emberson, J; Goodwin, N; Hurt, C; Link, E; McCabe, P; Munday, A; Murawska, A; Offer, A; Palmer, A; Parish, S; Peto, R; Prajapati, N; Tochlin, S; Young, A; Young, A; Clark, S; Kourelhas, K; Radley, M; Ambrose, V; Bradley, M; Bush, E; Chavagnon, T; Chukwurah, B; Crowley, S; Dunseath, J; Emmens, K; Fletcher, L; Gordon, J; Gordon, A; Hickman, C; Hill, J; Ji, M; Lee, A; Luker, N; Norris, S; Priestley, H; Sullivan, J; Taylor, J; Wintour, J; Yeung, M; Youngman, L; Beebe, S; Fitzgerald, J; Godden, J; Haimes, L; Lawson, A; Lochhead, H; McDonnell, M; Nash, M; Taylor, A; Bennett, AT; Walton, E
632008Wouters, K; van Gorp, PJ; Bieghs, V; Gijbels, MJ; Duimel, H; Lutjohann, D; Kerksiek, A; van Kruchten, R; Maeda, N; Staels, B; van Bilsen, M; Shiri-Sverdlov, R; Hofker, MHDietary cholesterol, rather than liver steatosis, leads to hepatic inflammation in hyperlipidemic mouse models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitisHEPATOLOGY199
632007Bogers, RP; Bemelmans, WJE; Hoogenveen, RT; Boshuizen, HC; Woodward, M; Knekt, P; van Dam, RM; Hu, FB; Visscher, TLS; Menotti, A; Thorpe, RJ; Jamrozik, K; Calling, S; Strand, BH; Shipley, MJAssociation of overweight with increased risk of coronary heart disease partly independent of blood pressure and cholesterol levels – A meta-analysis of 21 cohort studies including more than 300,000 personsARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE199
652009Kwon, HJ; Abi-Mosleh, L; Wang, ML; Deisenhofer, J; Goldstein, JL; Brown, MS; Infante, REStructure of N-Terminal Domain of NPC1 Reveals Distinct Subdomains for Binding and Transfer of CholesterolCELL197
662009Demonty, I; Ras, RT; van der Kniap, HCM; Duchateau, GSMJF; Meijer, L; Zock, PL; Geleijnse, JM; Trautwein, EAContinuous Dose-Response Relationship of the LDL-Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Phytosterol IntakeJOURNAL OF NUTRITION194
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
662006Kastelein, JJP; Wedel, MK; Baker, BF; Su, J; Bradley, JD; Yu, RZ; Chuang, E; Graham, MJ; Crooke, RMPotent reduction of apolipoprotein B and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by short-term administration of an antisense inhibitor of apolipoprotein BCIRCULATION194
662006Portincasa, P; Moschetta, A; Palasciano, GCholesterol gallstone diseaseLANCET194
692007Zhang, YY; Guo, KY; LeBlanc, RE; Loh, D; Schwartz, GJ; Yu, YHIncreasing dietary leucine intake reduces diet-induced obesity and improves glucose and cholesterol metabolism in mice via multimechanismsDIABETES185
692006Li, YC; Park, MJ; Ye, SK; Kim, CW; Kim, YNElevated levels of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in cancer cells are correlated with apoptosis sensitivity induced by cholesterol-depleting agentsAMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY185
712009Rader, DJ; Alexander, ET; Weibel, GL; Billheimer, J; Rothblat, GHThe role of reverse cholesterol transport in animals and humans and relationship to atherosclerosisJOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH183
722007Liu, Q; Zerbinatti, CV; Zhang, J; Hoe, HS; Wang, B; Cole, SL; Herz, J; Muglia, L; Bu, GJAmyloid precursor protein regulates brain apolipoprotein e and cholesterol metabolism through lipoprotein receptor LRP1NEURON182
732006Matsuura, F; Wang, N; Chen, WG; Jiang, XC; Tall, ARHDL from CETP-deficient subjects shows enhanced ability to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages in an apoE- and ABCG1-dependent pathwayJOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION180
742009Brown, MS; Goldstein, JLCholesterol feedback: From Schoenheimer’s bottle to Scap’s MELADLJOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH179
742007Temel, RE; Tang, WQ; Ma, YY; Rudel, LL; Willingham, MC; Ioannou, YA; Davies, JP; Nilsson, LM; Yu, LQHepatic Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 regulates biliary cholesterol concentration and is a target of ezetirnibeJOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION179
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
762012Boekholdt, SM; Arsenault, BJ; Mora, S; Pedersen, TR; LaRosa, JC; Nestel, PJ; Simes, RJ; Durrington, P; Hitman, GA; Welch, KMA; DeMicco, DA; Zwinderman, AH; Clearfield, MB; Downs, JR; Tonkin, AM; Colhoun, HM; Gotto, AM; Ridker, PM; Kastelein, JJPAssociation of LDL Cholesterol, Non-HDL Cholesterol, and Apolipoprotein B Levels with Risk of Cardiovascular Events Among Patients Treated with Statins A Meta-analysisJAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION178
762011Di Paolo, G; Kim, TWLinking lipids to Alzheimer’s disease: Cholesterol and beyondNATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE178
782010Yvan-Charvet, L; Wang, N; Tall, ARRole of HDL, ABCA1, and ABCG1 Transporters in Cholesterol Efflux and Immune ResponsesARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY177
782009Rog, T; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, M; Vattulainen, I; Karttunen, MOrdering effects of cholesterol and its analoguesBIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-BIOMEMBRANES177
802008van der Steeg, WA; Holme, I; Boekholdt, SM; Larsen, ML; Lindahl, C; Stroes, ESG; Tikkanen, MJ; Wareham, NJ; Faergeman, O; Olsson, AG; Pedersen, TR; Khaw, KT; Kastelein, JJPHigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein particle size, and apolipoprotein A-I: Significance for cardiovascular risk – The IDEAL and EPIC-Norfolk studiesJOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY174
812009Chan, JCY; Piper, DE; Cao, QO; Liu, DM; King, C; Wang, W; Tang, J; Liu, Q; Higbee, J; Xia, Z; Di, YM; Shetterly, S; Arimura, Z; Salomonis, H; Romanow, WG; Thibault, ST; Zhang, R; Cao, P; Yang, XP; Yu, T; Lu, M; Retter, MW; Kwon, G; Henne, K; Pan, O; Tsai, MM; Fuchslocher, B; Yang, E; Zhou, L; Lee, KJ; Daris, M; Sheng, J; Wang, Y; Shen, WD; Yeh, WC; Emery, M; Walker, NPC; Shan, B; Schwarz, M; Jackson, SMA proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 neutralizing antibody reduces serum cholesterol in mice and nonhuman primatesPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA171
822011Farzadfar, F; Finucane, MM; Danaei, G; Pelizzari, PM; Cowan, MJ; Paciorek, CJ; Singh, GM; Lin, JK; Stevens, GA; Riley, LM; Ezzati, MNational, regional, and global trends in serum total cholesterol since 1980: Systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 321 country-years and 3.0 million participantsLANCET170
832012Sullivan, D; Olsson, AG; Scott, R; Kim, JB; Xue, A; Gebski, V; Wasserman, SM;Effect of a Monoclonal Antibody to PCSK9 onJAMA-JOURNAL OF THE168
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
Stein, EALow-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Statin-Intolerant Patients The GAUSS Randomized TrialAMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
842006Oksman, M; Livonen, H; Hogyes, E; Amtul, Z; Penke, B; Leenders, I; Broersen, L; Lutjohann, D; Hartmann, T; Tanila, HImpact of different saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid and cholesterol containing diets on beta-amyloid accumulation in APP/PS1 transgenic miceNEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE165
852007Kapadia, SB; Barth, H; Baumert, T; McKeating, JA; Chisari, FVInitiation of hepatitis C virus infection is dependent on cholesterol and cooperativity between CD81 and scavenger receptor B type IJOURNAL OF VIROLOGY162
862007Buch, S; Schafmayer, C; Volzke, H; Becker, C; Franke, A; von Eller-Eberstein, H; Kluck, C; Bassmann, I; Brosch, M; Lammert, F; Miquel, JF; Nervi, F; Wittig, M; Rosskopf, D; Timm, B; Holl, C; Seeger, M; ElSharawy, A; Lu, T; Egberts, J; Fandrich, F; Folsch, UR; Krawczak, M; Schreiber, S; Nurnberg, P; Tepel, J; Hampe, JA genome-wide association scan identifies the hepatic cholesterol transporter ABCG8 as a susceptibility factor for human gallstone diseaseNATURE GENETICS161
872008Yvan-Charvet, L; Welch, C; Pagler, TA; Ranalletta, M; Lamkanfi, M; Han, S; Ishibashi, M; Li, R; Wang, N; Tall, ARIncreased Inflammatory Gene Expression in ABC Transporter-Deficient Macrophages Free Cholesterol Accumulation, Increased Signaling via Toll-Like Receptors, and Neutrophil Infiltration of Atherosclerotic LesionsCIRCULATION160
872008Infante, RE; Wang, ML; Radhakrishnan, A; Kwon, HJ; Brown, MS; Goldstein, JLNPC2 facilitates bidirectional transfer of cholesterol between NPC1 and lipid bilayers, a step in cholesterol egress from lysosomesPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA160
872008Anstey, KJ; Lipnicki, DM; Low, LFCholesterol as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline: A systematic review of prospective studies with meta-analysisAMERICAN JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY160
902008Zhu, X; Lee, JY; Timmins, JM; Brown, JM; Boudyguina, E; Mulya, A;Increased cellular free cholesterol inJOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL156
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
Gebre, AK; Willingham, MC; Hiltbold, EM; Mishra, N; Maeda, N; Parks, JSmacrophage-specific Abca1 knock-out mice enhances pro-inflammatory response of macrophagesCHEMISTRY
902006Vaughan, AM; Oram, JFABCA1 and ABCG1 or ABCG4 act sequentially to remove cellular cholesterol and generate cholesterol-rich HDLJOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH156
902006Jessup, W; Gelissen, IC; Gaus, K; Kritharides, LRoles of ATP binding cassette transporters A1 and G1, scavenger receptor BI and membrane lipid domains in cholesterol export from macrophagesCURRENT OPINION IN LIPIDOLOGY156
932009Waters, DD; Brotons, C; Chiang, CW; Ferrieres, J; Foody, J; Jukema, JW; Santos, RD; Verdejo, J; Messig, M; McPherson, R; Seung, KB; Tarasenko, LLipid Treatment Assessment Project 2 A Multinational Survey to Evaluate the Proportion of Patients Achieving Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol GoalsCIRCULATION155
942006Martins, IJ; Hone, E; Foster, JK; Sunram-Lea, SI; Gnjec, A; Fuller, SJ; Nolan, D; Gandy, SE; Martins, RNApolipoprotein E, cholesterol metabolism, diabetes, and the convergence of risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and cardiovascular diseaseMOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY154
952006Yang, FJ; Vought, BW; Satterlee, JS; Walker, AK; Sun, ZYJ; Watts, JL; DeBeaumont, R; Saito, RM; Hyberts, SG; Yang, S; Macol, C; Iyer, L; Tjian, R; van den Heuvel, S; Hart, AC; Wagner, G; Naar, AMAn ARC/Mediator subunit required for SREBP control of cholesterol and lipid homeostasisNATURE152
962008Degoma, EM; Degoma, RL; Rader, DJBeyond high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels – Evaluating high-density lipoprotein function as influenced by novel therapeutic approachesJOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY151
962007Bradley, MN; Hong, C; Chen, MY; Joseph, SB; Wilpitz, DC; Wang, XP; Lusis, AJ; Collins, A; Hseuh, WA; Collins, JL; Tangirala, RK; Tontonoz, PLigand activation of LXR beta reverses atherosclerosis and cellular cholesterol overload in mice lacking LXR alpha and apoEJOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION151
962006Ajayaghosh, A; Vijayakumar, C; Varghese, R; George, SJCholesterol-aided supramolecular control over chromophore packing: Twisted and coiled helicesANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION151
Table 2

(Continued)

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTimes cited
with distinct optical, chiroptical, and morphological features
992008Erlund, I; Koli, R; Alfthan, G; Marniemi, J; Puukka, P; Mustonen, P; Mattila, P; Jula, AFavorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterolAMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION150
992007Kodama, S; Tanaka, S; Saito, K; Shu, M; Sone, Y; Onitake, F; Suzuki, E; Shimano, H; Yamamoto, S; Kondo, K; Ohashi, Y; Yamada, N; Sone, HEffect of aerobic exercise training on serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol – A meta-analysisARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE150
Table 3

Journal/study-type cross tabulation 1916–2015

JournalCholesterol and diseaseCholesterol metabolism/homeostasisCholesterol lowering drugsMethods for measuring cholesterolCholesterol biochemistry/biophysicsTotal articles
NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE93719
LANCET7714
SCIENCE11112
JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION63211
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA156
CIRCULATION426
CLINICAL CHEMISTRY66
BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL235
JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH1315
BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA224
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY314
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION33
ANNUAL REVIEW OF BIOCHEMISTRY112
NATURE MEDICINE112
NATURE112
DIABETES CARE112
Table 3

(Continued)

JournalCholesterol and diseaseCholesterol metabolism/homeostasisCholesterol lowering drugsMethods for measuring cholesterolCholesterol biochemistry/biophysicsTotal articles
CELL22
ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE22
MOLECULAR CELL112
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION112
ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE11
METABOLISM11
CLINICA CHIMICA ACTA11
NATURE GENETICS11
JOURNAL OF LABORATORY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE11
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY11
BIOCHEMISTRY11
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES11
JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY11
ZEITSCHRIFT FUR KLINISCHE CHEMIE UND KLINISCHE BIOCHEMIE11
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY11
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY11

This table shows the frequency distribution of the 100 most-cited papers of the last century by both research category (enumerated in the column headers) and journal (identified in the table rows). Each article was assigned one or two research categories.

Table 4

Journal/study-type cross tabulation 2006–2015

JournalCholesterol metabolism/homeostasisCholesterol and diseaseCholesterol lowering drugsCholesterol biochemistry/biophysicsTotal articles
LANCET210921
CIRCULATION46313
JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION1359
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY3238
NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE3227
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION4116
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA325
CIRCULATION RESEARCH224
NATURE314
CELL METABOLISM224
JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH314
NATURE GENETICS213
JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE123
DIABETES CARE213
SCIENCE33
MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY112
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY22
BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-BIOMEMBRANES112
ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE112
EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL112
JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY112
CURRENT OPINION IN LIPIDOLOGY11
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS11
DIABETES11
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION11
Table 4

(Continued)

JournalCholesterol metabolism/homeostasisCholesterol and diseaseCholesterol lowering drugsCholesterol biochemistry/biophysicsTotal articles
PLOS ONE11
NATURE MEDICINE11
ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION11
NATURE REVIEWS MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY11
HEPATOLOGY11
NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE11
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY11
ANNUAL REVIEW OF CELL AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY11
NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE11
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY11
NEURON11
ANNUAL REVIEW OF PHYSIOLOGY11
PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEWS11
BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL11
PLOS PATHOGENS11
STRUCTURE11
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY11
JOURNAL OF NUTRITION11
CELL11
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY11

This table shows the frequency distribution of the 100 most-cited papers of the last decade by both research category (enumerated in the column headers) and journal (identified in the table rows). Each article was assigned one or two research categories.

4.Discussion

It is interesting to see the preponderance of different sub-disciplines in cholesterol research represented in Tables 1 and 2. In particular, the most cited articles over last 10 years shows a shift away from articles describing methods for the measurement of cholesterol towards (increasingly molecular) studies describing cholesterol metabolism/homeostasis, the role of cholesterol in diseases, and cholesterol-lowering drugs, compared with the most cited articles from the last 100 years. We hypothesize that the complete lack of the cholesterol measurement category in the top-100 list of the last decade, as can be seen in Table 4, indicates that while incremental improvements in this area have continued over the last ten years, there has been nothing which one could easily classify as a “quantum leap” producing a highly-cited landmark paper. By contrast, the papers cited in Table 2 suggest that the last 10 years have witnessed the advent of studies describing the role of cholesterol in non-cardiovascular diseases such as cancer (the second reference numbered 69) and Alzheimer’s (the second reference numbered 76 and 94). When comparing Tables 3 and 4, another salient feature is the dominance one observes in the most recent period of cardiovascular journals. By comparing the top-10 journals based on number of papers in each of the top-100 articles lists in Tables 3 and 4, one can observe past dominance of journals of a more general nature such as Clinical Chemistry, British Medical Journal, and Science being displaced through the introduction of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology and Circulation Research into the top ten. Also of note is that Circulation rose in the ranking from #6 to #2 when considering the most-cited papers of the last decade instead of the last century.

Some of the names in Table 1 will be clearly recognized by the majority of cholesterol research investigators as being “superstars”. For example the team of Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein, who were awarded the 1985 Nobel prize for Physiology or Medicine 1985 for their work on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism, are jointly authors of nine papers in the most cited articles of the last century (Table 1, numbers 8, 18, 21, 23, 24, 45, 63, 67 and 69) and three from the most cited of the last 10 years (Table 2, numbers 65, 74 and the second reference numbered 87). Other names, especially in Table 2 are “rising stars” who, in the last decade, have made significant contributions to the cholesterol research literature.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the referees for their insightful comments.

References

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S. Grundy, Statins: Definitive translational research, Mol Med 20 (2014), 1.

[2] 

J.S. Kreutzer, A.A. Agyemang, D. Weedon, N. Zasler, M. Oliver, A.A. Sorensen and S. van Wijngaarden, The top 100 cited neurorehabilitation papers, NeuroRehabilitation 40 (2016), 2, Forthcoming.