Affiliations: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
Note:  Address for correspondence: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Tel.: +1 970 491 6214; Fax: +1 970 491 0494; E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Circular dichroism (CD) is widely used in protein science to elucidate protein secondary structure, to monitor protein folding, to detect conformational changes, and to measure protein-ligand interactions. This paper describes the development of protein CD, experimentally and theoretically. The application of far-UV CD to secondary structure determination is reviewed. Advances in understanding protein side-chain and prosthetic group CD are surveyed.
Keywords: Circular dichroism, history, protein secondary structure, aromatic side chains, excitons, myoglobin, hemoglobin, rhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin, channelrhodopsin