Affiliations: Institute of Cytology RAS, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation | Department of Molecular Biophysics, Faculty of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation | Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Biology, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation
Note:  Corresponding author: Elena Chikhirzhina, Institute of Cytology RAS, 4 Tikhoretsky Ave., Saint-Petersburg, 194064, Russian Federation. Tel.: +7 812 2973740; Fax: +7 812 2970341; E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Structural organization of chromatin in eukaryotic cells plays an important role in the functioning of the genetic apparatus of the cell. The nucleoprotein complex is formed due to the interactions of DNA with histones and non-histone proteins. Here we describe the main levels of the structural organization of the chromatin. Special attention is paid to the spectroscopic techniques such as infrared absorption spectroscopy, electronic and vibrational circular dichroism and their impact to the investigation of the chromatin structure. The linker proteins: histone H1 and non-histone protein HMGB1 and their role in the formation of the super compact chromatin is discussed.
Keywords: Circular dichroism, atomic force microscopy, chromatin structure, nucleosome, DNA, histones, linker histones of H1 family, HMGB1 protein