Affiliations: Department of Biology, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey
Note:  Address for correspondence: Sevgi Turker, Department of Biology, Kocaeli University, 41380, Kocaeli, Turkey. Tel.: +90 262 303 28 11; Fax: +90 262 303 12 34; E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, as one the most common spectroscopic techniques, has been developed in terms of both instrumentation and analysis methods. This allows the wide applications of infrared spectroscopy in all branches of basic and applied research. Especially, its ability for direct identification of chemical changes without the addition of contrast agents enables the examination of a large variety of biological samples, including biological fluids, isolated cells, tissues, and sections. This review focuses on in vitro and in vivo applications of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) to analyze the biochemical and structural changes associated with neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, multiple sclerosis, as well as epilepsy. With the application of FTIR and FTIRM, successful discrimination of pathological states of these diseases could be achieved. Hence, the high capacity of these methods offers insight into disease-induced alterations underlying pathogenesis of the diseases, which provides early diagnostic information and the improvement of therapeutic approaches.