Affiliations: [a] U.M.A.E. Hospital de Pediatría C.M.N.O., Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México | [b] Laboratorio de Investigación en Patología, Departamento de Microbiología y Patología, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
| [c] Laboratorio de Neuroinmunobiología Molecular, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas (IICB), C.U.C.S., Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México
Correspondence to: Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún, Laboratorio de Neuroinmunobiología Molecular, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas (IICB), CUCS, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. Tel.: +52 33 1058 5200/Ext. 33742; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-mediated disorder that affects the Central Nervous System (CNS). It is associated with several genetic and environmental risk factors and has a heterogeneous nature that affects the evolution of the disease, as well as its clinical manifestations, which renders difficult the follow-up of the patients with MS and their treatment. As in other autoimmune diseases, sex hormones play an important role in the evolution of MS. The prevalence of MS is in a proportion of 2-to-3 females per males, with females more affected and with pregnancy providing a protection state. Sex hormones modulate the immune response and have neuroprotective effects; therefore, treatment with these hormones may ameliorate the clinical status of MS. Because it remains unclear whether sex hormones could modify the response to immunomodulatory treatment by inducing a gender-dependent effect, and whether there are gender-associated biomarkers, which that allow a more detailed and predictive follow-up in patients with MS. Here we review the existing evidence about the search for biomarkers for the clinical follow-up of patients with MS, considering gender as a factor that influences the progression of the disease and the response to treatment. We analyze and discuss the microarray approach, polymorphisms (such as Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, SNP) and soluble biomarker determinations, which revealed differences depending on the gender of the patients. We propose that further studies must always consider the gender of the patients as a variable in their analysis, which permits a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and obtaining a much better and consistent profile of the biomarkers useful in the clinic of the MS.