Affiliations: Inserm et Assistance Publique et Universitè Paris Sud Orsay, Hopital Antoine Bèclère, Clamart Cedex, France
Note:  Correspondence to: Gérard Chaouat, U782 Inserm, 32 rue des carnets, 92140 clamart cedex, France. Fax: +33145374450; E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: In this paper, I outline briefly the concepts that led to the evolution of Reproductive Immunology. The history starts in 1971, with the “Medawar paradigm”, and as a consequence in the 70 s–90 s, the placental barrier and immunosuppression concepts were proposed. The first conceptual breakthrough started with the “vaccination against abortion in mice”, leading to immunotrophysm, and the importance of cytokines emerged, which lead to the disapproval of the Th1:Th2 paradigm. It was necessary to revise this approach, and, notably, it was recognized that NK cells were not only “bad guys”, but in fact were required for successful pregnancy. NK cells are involved in the transformation of the local vessels. We are interest in the control of NK activation by various interleukins (notably the Il-12, IL-18, NK tripod) as well as tumour necrosis factor-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) in mice and human. One must now recognize “suppression” as Tregs emerged, and recognize signals of the embryo. We also discuss here FF G-CSF and sHLA-G. Microarrays, as well as studies on innate immunity, which are amongst our latest interests, while combining studies in mice and human, with spin off consequences for the clinician.