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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Workplace bullying is a serious stressor with devastating short- and long-term consequences. The concept of organizational social capital may provide insights into the interactional and communicative dynamics of the bullying process and opportunities for prevention. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the association between organizational social capital and being a target or observer of workplace bullying. METHODS: Based on self-reported cross-sectional data from a large representative sample of the Danish working population (n = 10.037), logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore at the individual level the associations between vertical and horizontal organizational social capital…with being a target or observer of workplace bullying. RESULTS: In the fully adjusted models, low organizational social capital (vertical and horizontal) was associated with significantly increased odds ratios of both self-labelled (vertical: OR = 3.25; CI = 2.34–4.51; horizontal: OR = 3.17; CI = 2.41–4.18) and observed workplace bullying (vertical: OR = 2.09; CI = 1.70–2.56; horizontal: OR = 1.60; CI = 1.35–1.89), when compared with high organizational social capital. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports that characteristics of the psychosocial work environment are of importance in the development of workplace bullying, and provides focus on the importance of self-reported organizational social capital.
Keywords: Work environment, observers of bullying, targets of bullying, organizational social capital, Danish WorkEnvironment Cohort Study
vol. Preprint, no. Preprint, pp. 1-11, 2017
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the parameters of the postural changes between two sitting positions: sitting on a saddle chair compared to sitting on an office chair. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the impact of an adjustable saddle chair compared to an adjustable office chair with a backrest on sitting posture. METHODS: The study involved 60 healthy subjects, mean age 24.7±2.3 years. The study used a MORA 4G system, operating on the basis of spatial photogrammetry. RESULTS: It was found that there were statistically significant…differences regarding the depth of thoracic kyphosis and the angle of the trunk forward inclination. These values were lower when measured on a saddle chair, and the inclination of the upper thoracic section and the lumbar lordosis depth were significantly higher when sitting on a saddle chair. CONCLUSIONS: Sitting on the saddle chair caused the positive effect of an increase of lumbar lordosis. A significant increase in the protraction in the cervical spine was observed, which would be considered to be a negative effect.
Keywords: Physiotherapy, prophylactic, posture, ergonomics, sitting position
vol. Preprint, no. Preprint, pp. 1-7, 2017
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Stroke has been identified as a global cause of neurological disability with a resultant burden shared not only by the survivor but also by society. The resumption of an individual’s role as a worker after having a stroke, is an important rehabilitation goal. South-West Nigeria has experienced a high incidence and prevalence of stroke, leaving a quarter of survivors with severe disabilities and difficulties in community integration after rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at exploring and describing the experiences of rehabilitated stroke survivors and perceptions of stakeholders about stroke survivors returning to work in South-West Nigeria.…METHODS: A qualitative research design was used to explore these experiences and perceptions from 19 participants, comprising nine stroke survivors, two key informants, who were rehabilitation specialists, and eight caregivers of the respective stroke survivors. The researcher made use of focus groups with the caregivers and semi-structured interviews with the stroke survivors and rehabilitation specialists. The data from the study were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes emerged: Themes one and two described the barriers experienced by the stroke survivors on returning to work. Theme three described the factors that facilitated the resumption of the worker role. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings clearly depicted the many barriers experienced by stroke survivors and how these negatively impact their worker roles. Limited facilitatory factors exist to assist stroke survivors in regard to adapting to their worker roles. Promoting participation of stroke survivors in work emanating from government policies was deemed to be a necessary recommendation for the study. These policies were seen to be achievable if rehabilitation resources were improved.
Keywords: Occupation, occupational therapy, vocational rehabilitation, qualitative research, worker role
vol. Preprint, no. Preprint, pp. 1-15, 2017
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Work Role Functioning Questionnaire (WRFQ) was developed to assess workers’ perceived ability to perform job demands and is used to monitor presenteeism. Still few studies on its validity can be found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the items and factorial composition of the Canadian French version of the WRFQ (WRFQ-CF). METHODS: Two measurement approaches were used to test the WRFQ-CF: Classical Test Theory (CTT) and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT). RESULTS: A total of 352 completed questionnaires were analyzed. A four-factor and three-factor model models…were tested and shown respectively good fit with 14 items (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06, Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) = 0.04, Bentler Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.98) and with 17 items (RMSEA = 0.59, SRMR = 0.048, CFI = 0.98). Using IRT, 13 problematic items were identified, of which 9 were common with CTT. CONCLUSIONS: This study tested different models with fewer problematic items found in a three-factor model. Using a non-parametric IRT and CTT for item purification gave complementary results. IRT is still scarcely used and can be an interesting alternative method to enhance the quality of a measurement instrument. More studies are needed on the WRFQ-CF to refine its items and factorial composition.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dentists have a high prevalence of musculoskeletal (MS) pain, which is the most common symptom associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). To overcome this problem, identification of the risk factors and preventive measures for MS pain are of paramount importance to dentists in order to improve their quality of life and work. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to recognize the risk factors for MS pain and their impact on dental work, as well as to identify preventive measures of MS pain among dentists. METHODS: Self-reporting questionnaire consisting of 78 questions was exclusively developed…for the study and sent to 500 working active dentists in Serbia. RESULTS: Response rate was 71.2% (356 dentists). The prevalence of MS pain was 82.6% among dentists. The main risk factors for MS pain were advanced age, female dentists, presence of chronic diseases, long working hours, and high frequency of treated patients. The most effective preventive measures in preventing MS pain were massage treatments and physical activities. Followed by use of ergonomically designed equipment, correct and dynamic working positions, and an adequate workflow organization. CONCLUSION: The risk factors for MS pain and their impact on dental work should widely be disseminated among dentists. Importantly, proper implementation in everyday life of adequate preventive measures is essential for preventing MS pain and development of WMSDs.
Keywords: Risk factors, preventive measures, musculoskeletal disorders, dental work, working performance, working postures
vol. Preprint, no. Preprint, pp. 1-21, 2017
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) are among the most common occupational disorders in many countries and have an increasing trend. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence rate of MSDs in different body regions and the effect of personal factors on the prevalence rate of MSDs among rubber industry workers. METHODS: This analytical and cross-sectional study was performed on 206 workers of an Iranian rubber factory in 2014. The samples were randomly selected. Data were gathered by means of personal information forms, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Rapid Entire Body…Assessment (REBA). The results were analyzed using SPSS16; by descriptive and analytical statistics. RESULTS: The mean age and work history of subjects were 34.54±6.36 and 12.34±6.28 years, respectively. The highest prevalence rate of MSDs in the last twelve-months was related to the lower back region with a prevalence rate of 62.1%. Based on logistic regression, a significant correlation was found between pain and the final REBA score so that for a one-unit increase in score, the risk or complaint of neck and low back pain increased by 48.5% and 37.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Many rubber factory workers experience MSDs especially in the lower back region as a consequence of occupational risk factors. Therefore, detecting the occupational risk factors, work position standards and following ergonomic policies are highly recommended.
Keywords: Ergonomics, working posture, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA).
vol. Preprint, no. Preprint, pp. 1-7, 2017
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In an advanced nuclear power plant (NPP), the operators are responsible for monitoring a massive number of alarm parameters. OBJECTIVE: To assist the operators, a monitoring-aid system (MAS), that applies four quality control chart methods, was proposed and evaluated. METHODS: Two types of MAS, namely, text and graph marks, were proposed and compared with the original display. To validate the proposed MAS, 17 professional engineers and operators were invited to join an experiment. Two different system states, normal and abnormal, were simulated. The operators were asked to manipulate the system, monitor the critical parameters, search…for operational procedures, and deal with other secondary tasks. The primary and secondary task performance and heart rate were measured. After each task was conducted, three subjective rating questionnaires, namely, mental workload, situation awareness, and preference ratings, were implemented for the proposed MAS and the original system. RESULTS: With the assistance of the MAS, the alarm detection rate, secondary task performance, and subjective mental workload demonstrate significant improvements. The proposed MAS helps the operators monitor critical parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the MAS should be considered for implementation with the control panel to increase the safety of NPPs. Furthermore, the MAS could reduce the mental workload might decrease the health hazard of the operators.
Keywords: Mental workload, situation awareness, control panel interface, quality control charts
vol. Preprint, no. Preprint, pp. 1-15, 2017
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The traditional design of fabric cutting scissors frequently causes excessive ulnar deviation of the wrist which, together with repetitive and long-term use of the tool, may contribute to the development of musculoskeletal problems, particularly in the upper extremities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare a new bent-handle fabric scissors with a traditional one. METHODS: The study investigated the effects of a new bent-handle fabric scissors on several hand performance capabilities (hand dexterity, pinch grip strength, wrist postures and hand/finger discomfort) and tool’s usability (using System Usability Scale – SUS) and compared it…against the effects of traditional design. RESULTS: The results indicated that the bent-handle fabric scissors was superior to the traditional design as it resulted in more neutral wrist deviation, higher usability scores and less hand/finger discomfort ratings. No significant difference was found between the two designs with regard to the hand dexterity and strength exertions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide evidence that the ergonomic principle of “bending the tool, not the wrist” can perhaps be employed advantageously for the design of fabric cutting scissors to reduce wrist deviations and discomfort and to improve the tool’s usability.
Keywords: Hand tools, tool handle, bent handle, fabric cutting scissors
vol. Preprint, no. Preprint, pp. 1-6, 2017