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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. OBJECTIVE: This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an…inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick’s [1 ] sense-making theory. RESULTS: A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI’s four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Organizational resilience refers to the ability to respond productively to significant disruptive change and transform challenges into opportunities. There is a gap in the literature about resilient nonprofit organizations and its application for identifying organizational conditions for successful adaption to external variables that threaten their existence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify organizational characteristics that point to the resilience of nonprofit behavioral healthcare organizations as they successfully adapt to funding changes. METHODS: A multiple case study of two behavioral health nonprofit organizations was conducted. Data was collected through interviews and focus…groups, and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Using the framework of resilience, six themes that equipped these organizations to successfully adapt to funding changes were identified. They included: commitment to the mission, improvisation, community reciprocity, servant and transformational leadership, hope and optimism, and fiscal transparency. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that incorporating these qualities into an organizational system equips it to systematically adapt to funding changes and other disruptive challenges. Using resilience as a process and not simply an outcome after recovery, nonprofit organizations can have the capacity to continuously respond to challenges and provide uninterrupted and valuable services to society.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recent changes in the United States (US) economy have radically disrupted revenue generation among many institutions within higher education within the US. Chief among these disruptions has been fallout associated with the financial crisis of 2008-2009, which triggered a change in the US higher education environment from a period of relative munificence to a prolonged period of scarcity. The hardest hit by this disruption have been smaller, less wealthy institutions which tend to lack the necessary reserves to financially weather the economic storm. Interestingly, a review of institutional effectiveness among these institutions revealed that while many are struggling,…some institutions have found ways to not only successfully cope with the impact of declining revenue, but have been able to capitalize on the disruption and thrive. OBJECTIVE: Organizational response is an important factor in successfully coping with conditions of organizational decline. The study examined the impacts of organizational response on institutional effectiveness among higher education institutions experiencing organizational decline. The study’s research question asked why some US higher educational institutions are more resilient at coping with organizational decline than other institutions operating within the same segment of the higher education sector. More specifically, what role does organizational resilience have in helping smaller, private non-profit institutions cope and remain effective during organizational decline? PARTICIPANTS: A total of 141 US smaller, private non-profit higher educational institutions participated in the study; specifically, the study included responses from participant institutions’ key administrators. METHODS: 60-item survey evaluated administrator responses corresponding to organizational response and institutional effectiveness. Factor analysis was used to specify the underlying structures of rigidity response, resilience response, and institutional effectiveness. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the direct and interaction effects between organizational decline, organizational rigidity response, organizational resilience response, and institutional effectiveness, controlling for age of institution and level of endowment. RESULTS: The study validated previous threat-rigidity response findings that organizational decline alone does not adversely impact institutional effectiveness. The direct effect of Goal-Directed Solution Seeking and Role Dependency organizational resilience factors had a positive, significant correlation with the Student Personal Development institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Goal-Directed Solution Seeking organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Professional Development and Quality of Faculty institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Avoidance during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Faculty and Administrator Employment Satisfaction institutional effectiveness factor. The interactive effect of Diminished Innovation, Morale, and Leader Credibility rigidity response factor and Avoidance organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Professional Development and Quality of Faculty institutional effectiveness factor. Lastly, the interactive effect of Increased Scapegoating of Leaders, Interest group Activities, and Conflict rigidity response factor and Avoidance organizational resilience factor during organizational decline had a positive, significant correlation with the Faculty and Administrator Employment Satisfaction institutional effectiveness factor. CONCLUSIONS: Factors of organizational resilience were found to have a positive effect among smaller, private non-profit higher educational institutions associated with this study toward sustaining institutional effectiveness during organizational decline. Specifically, the organizational resilience factors of Goal-Directed Solution Seeking (i.e., mission-driven solutions) and Avoidance (i.e., skepticism toward new ideas) play a significant, collaborative role among smaller, private non-profit higher educational institutions when it comes to sustaining institutional effectiveness during organizational decline.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Royal Norwegian Naval Academy (RNoNA) has an interest in enhancing military teams’ knowledge, skills and abilities to deal with complex situations and environments. OBJECTIVE : The objective is to document the need for resilience in military teams and to expand the understanding of how such behavior can be meaningfully instilled through team training interventions. METHOD : Norwegian military subject matter experts (SMEs) assessed the performance of military teams participating in complex military training exercises. Eight cadet teams at the RNoNA were assessed during two separate 4-hour simulator training exercises and a 48-hour live training exercise.…RESULTS : Positive Spearman rank correlation coefficients between resilience assessments in the simulator training exercises and the live training exercise were strongest when the simulator scenario emphasized resilience factors inherent in the live exercise, and weakest when the simulator scenario did not facilitate the task demands in the live exercise. CONCLUSION : The study showed that resilience assessed in teams during simulator training exercises predicted their resilient behavior in a subsequent live training exercise and that the proper design of scenario-based simulator training can realistically and effectively represent resilience stressors found in live operations.
Keywords: Team performance assessment, teamwork, taskwork, scenario-based simulator training, transfer of training
Abstract: BACKGROUND: From 2010 to 2012, the for-profit sector of higher education in the United States (otherwise known as career colleges) existed in a turbulent environment, characterized by regulatory, media, and public scrutiny. While virtually all career colleges experienced enrollment declines during this period, by 2012 some colleges were starting to see this trend stabilize or reverse, whereas others did not. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if the differences in career colleges’ enrollment trends could be attributed to organizational resilience. METHODS: A quantitative correlation study using a multiple regression analysis was conducted…to determine the nature of the relationship between organizational resilience and the enrollment fluctuations of 59 career colleges located throughout the United States. RESULTS: The correlation between organizational resilience levels and enrollment fluctuations was fair to moderate and significant, r = 0.40, p < 0.05. A multiple-regression analysis revealed that the model significantly explained the impact of the six organizational resilience factors on enrollment fluctuations, F = 4.15, p < 0.01. The R 2 for the model was 0.32, and the adjusted R 2 was 0.25. In terms of individual organizational resilience factors, two tested either significantly or moderately significantly: avoidance-skepticism and critical understanding or sensemaking. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations for college leaders include monitoring the level of avoidance to ensure a healthy balance of skepticism regarding new situations and incorporating strategies to help organizational members increase their levels of critical understanding or sensemaking.
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Bankruptcy is a crisis that generates severe stress and anxiety, resulting in maladaptive behavior and inappropriate decision-making at both individual and organizational levels. There is limited research or guidance for management to address the consequences of bankruptcy on an organization’s human capital. OBJECTIVE : This study examined the human capital management principle of organizational resilience that was employed by a company that successfully reorganized and emerged from bankruptcy. METHODS : This study translated seven principles of organizational resilience proposed by Mallak to operationalize a conceptual model of organizational resilience for companies operating in bankruptcy. The model…is evaluated using a qualitative research approach comprised of an original case study of Integrated Electrical Services, Inc. RESULTS : The results of the research points to the importance of de-centralized operational decision making, expanding communication channels, ensuring adequate external resources, and engaging external stakeholders in the management of an organization seeking to successfully operate and ultimately emerge from bankruptcy. CONCLUSIONS : The research identified the central importance of expanding decision making boundaries in the resilience of organizations and their ability to adapt when under adverse conditions such as bankruptcy. The implications support an organization developing a human resource strategy to develop organizational resilience.
Keywords: Human resource management, organizational adaptation, turnaround, adversity, coping
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Interest in resilience has increased in recent years. The U.S. military focus is on personal health and adaptation following exposure to battle, while the civilian interest centers on adjustments subsequent to disastrous events. Coping skills are also relevant, yet the relationships between coping and resilience are unclear. OBJECTIVE: This brief review examines personal resilience and individual coping strategies, exploring definitions of each, along with their potential relationships to one another. Their potential contributions within a work setting are described. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using search terms of resilience, resiliency, personal resilience, coping…and resilient coping. RESULTS: Coping refers to one’s using purposeful actions to handle life situations. Coping techniques can be functional or dysfunctional and the situations one copes with may be acute or long term, severe or minor. Resilience refers to positive and functional handling of oneself and ones’ life, referring to the ability to recover, recuperate, and regenerate following tragic events. CONCLUSIONS: While coping and resilience are related to one another, they are distinct concepts. Positive coping techniques may contribute to resilience. However, which coping techniques improve resilience, and in what circumstances, are questions for future research.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: U.S. military personnel face challenging situations including frequent deployments, family separations, and exposure to war. Identifying coping strategies used by the most resilient service members and veterans could positively influence military resiliency training programs. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this paper are to investigate the relationship between coping and resilience among U.S. military active service members and veterans, to identify the coping strategies used by those considered most resilient, and to discuss coping and resilience as they relate to the workplace. METHODS: U.S. military active service members and veterans (N = 191) completed a demographic survey…and two self-report questionnaires: The 14-Item Resilience Scale [1 ] and the Brief COPE [2 ]. RESULTS: Active duty service members had higher resilience scores than veterans (p < 0.05), but both fell into the moderate range. Coping strategies were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05). Active service members’ resilience was predicted by their use of positive reframing and less use of self-blame as coping strategies, accounting for 52.3% of the variance (R2 = 0.523, F(2, 60) = 32.92, p = 0.000). Veterans’ resilience was predicted by longer time-in-service, greater use of humor, and less use of self-blame as coping strategies, explaining 44.8% of the variance (R2 = 0.448, F(3, 116) = 31.408, p = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: This research identifies the positive coping strategies, and least-used negative coping strategies, of the U.S. service members and veterans in our study population with higher resilience scores. Incorporating this information into military- or veteran-based resilience training is likely to increase training effectiveness.