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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: Occupational therapy's online education must be research-based and inclusive. One way to provide a more inclusive online learning experience is to attend to individual learning styles and preferences. This study uses the best available evidence on learning styles and online education to develop, implement, and study occupational therapy students' experiences with an online learning module and related assignment. Eight students consented to take an online survey after completing a learning module and related assignment in an…online post-professional graduate course in occupational therapy. The survey explored their learning experience and its applicability to clinical work. Data gathered from multiple-choice, Likert-scale, and open-ended questions were descriptively analyzed. Results from this study suggest that students find the study of learning styles and preferences enjoyable and applicable to their clinical work, but are often motivated by factors such as time and technology when selecting the format of a course assignment.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case report was to describe an innovative model for transforming physical therapist students into clinical instructors with the use of a pro bono clinic. This model may assist other academic programs in creating effective approaches to transition entry-level students into future quality clinical instructors. PARTICIPANTS: Third year physical therapist students served as clinical instructors for second year students. METHODS: Peer and self assessments were collected to assess intended…objectives. RESULTS: Second year students were made more aware of the role of the clinical instructor and were able to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical teaching and third year students appreciated the impact of clinical teaching and increased their desire to become clinical instructors in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Student self and peer assessments reveal that this experiential model is an effective way of transitioning entry-level physical therapist students into the role of clinical instructor.
Keywords: Pro bono clinic, clinical instructor, experiential learning
Abstract: Students' description of factors contributing to a meaningful clinical experience in entry-level physical therapist professional education. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify student, clinical instructor (CI), and environmental characteristics and behaviors that make for positive clinical experiences as perceived by physical therapy students. PARTICIPANTS: Nine third-year physical therapist students from entry-level physial therapist education programs around the United States participated in this study. METHODS:…In this phenomenologic study, participants were interviewed using open-ended questions designed to facilitate rich description. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, validated, and analyzed. RESULTS: Themes were identified through collaborative analysis using constant comparative coding. Students described student, CI, and environmental factors and behaviors that contribute to a quality clinical experience, including: the students' demonstration of initiative to prepare for the clinical experience and preparation after clinic hours; the importance of the CI's insight, allowing CIs to ascertain how much guidance to give in order to foster independence in the student; and the clinical environment's ability to welcome a student and provide the student with novel learning experiences. CONCLUSION: The student descriptions, including positive and negative examples shared by the interviewees, demonstrate essential characteristics that contribute to a positive clinical experience. Many of the factors identified by students can be influenced by student and CI training and preparation prior to the clinical experience.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: With the physical therapy (PT) professions' advancement to the clinical doctorate degree and the promotion of autonomous practice, exemplary professional conduct is an expectation of the PT profession. PT education programs are being challenged to develop methods to teach and assess professional behavior. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three PT students (11 male and 32 female, ages 20–28 years) completed the APTA Professionalism in Physical Therapy: Core Values Self-Assessment (PPTCVSA) after their first 3 week clinical experience…and again after their final clinical experience. METHODS: A mixed design ANOVA compared participants' total scores and individual Core Value scores on the Professionalism in Physical Therapy: Core Values Self-Assessment (PPTCVSA) after 3 and 33 weeks of clinical education. The effects of gender, age, and undergraduate area of study on growth in professionalism scores were also investigated. RESULTS: Total PPTCVSA scores and individual Core Value scores on professionalism (accountability, altruism, compassion/caring, excellence, integrity, professional duty, and social responsibility) were higher after 33 weeks compared to scores after 3 weeks of clinical education. Female student's total professionalism scores were higher than male student's scores on both the first and second self-assessments. In addition, female students scored themselves higher than their male peers on accountability, excellence, integrity, and professional duty. CONCLUSIONS: Improved scores on the PPTCVSA indicate that physical therapy education is playing an important role in the development of professional behavior, knowledge, and application in practice.
Keywords: Core values, healthcare, professional behaviors
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Conduct a pilot study to establish the reliability and validity of a survey instrument that directly measures the objectives and content of the APTA CIECP; and measure the self-reported frequency of use of the behaviors taught in the APTA CIECP. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen (18) APTA credentialed CIs. METHODS: Develop a web-based survey consisting of 58 items representative of the behaviors taught in the APTA CIECP and 8 demographic characteristics. Establish the content validity and reliability of…the survey instrument. Conduct a descriptive analysis of the frequency of self-reported use of the behaviors. RESULTS: The APTA Clinical Instructor Education Board (CIEB) reviewed the items and determined that the items matched the objectives and content of the APTA CIECP, thereby establishing content validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from 0.79–0.90 confirmed the reliability. The overall mean for all items on a 1–6 scale was 4.81. CONCLUSIONS: The content validity and reliability of the survey instrument were established. The outcomes of this pilot study suggest that when measured by a valid and reliable instrument that is representative of the objectives and content of the CIECP, the behaviors taught in the CIECP are being applied in the clinical setting by APTA credentialed clinical instructors.
Keywords: Clinical instructors, teaching behaviors, survey development
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore students' perceptions of their confidence to use research evidence to complete a client case analysis assignment in preparation for participation in fieldwork and future practice. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 42 entry-level occupational therapy Masters students, included 41 females and one male, ages 24 to 35. METHODS: A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. Students participated in a problem-based learning approach supported by educational…technology. Measures included a pre- and post-semester confidence survey, a post-semester satisfaction survey, and an assignment rubric. RESULTS: Based on paired t-tests and Wilcoxin Signed Ranks Tests, statistically significant differences in pre- and post-test scores were noted for all 18 items on the confidence survey (p< 0.001). Significant increases in students' confidence were noted for verbal and written communication of descriptive, assessment, and intervention evidence, along with increased confidence to effectively use assessment evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that problem-based learning methods were significantly associated with students' perceptions of their confidence to use research evidence to analyze a client case. These results cannot necessarily be generalized due to the limitations of using non-standardized measures with a convenience sample, without a control group, within the context of a single course as part of one academic program curriculum.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate fieldwork educator behaviors that are valuable from the perspective of Level II occupational therapy and occupational therapist assistant students and fieldwork educators. PARTICIPANTS: 85 fieldwork educators and 37 students from Eastern and Western parts of the United States. METHODS: The 5 competency categories of the Self Assessment Tool for Fieldwork Educator Competency were used as the basis for developing the survey items and…data was analyzed with non-parametric statistics to check for differences among groups of respondents. RESULTS: Students and fieldwork educators generally ranked the value of the behaviors in the survey as the same. There were differences noted between responses of level II students on first, second, and third placements regarding supervision behaviors of fieldwork educators. (Chi square=6.59, p=0.04 and Chi square=7.95, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: The alignment of opinion of students and fieldwork educators is important in that it reinforces the common goal of academic programs, students, and fieldwork educators. More research needs to be done in order to understand the impact of placement order on the rankings of valued fieldwork educator behaviors.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if occupational therapy fieldwork educators are experiencing role strain. PARTICIPANTS: Were recruited from a convenience sample of a university database of 315 fieldwork sites. METHODS: The Role Strain in Occupational Therapy Fieldwork Educators Inventory was used to gather qualitative and quantitative data about practice. RESULTS: The overall mean for role strain was 2.34/5 with a 73% return rate. The majority of participants fell into the…moderate to low role strain category. Individuals with 5–10 years of practice had the greatest amount of role strain (2.43, SD 0.51, n=60). Participants working in pediatric settings had role strain in the moderate range. CONCLUSIONS: Nine items emerged with the highest amount of role strain, such as coping with job expectations and inadequate time to meet role expectations. Creation of strategies to reduce role strain should be a priority in our changing healthcare environment.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This case study describes and reports one university's occupational therapy (OT) curriculum design regarding the utilization of clinical fieldwork level II experiences to promote mental health as a core to the education of occupational therapists. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Graduates (190) of a Connecticut University were queried through a survey to determine the influence of OT fieldwork level II on student development of knowledge pertaining to psychological and social aspects of mental health. The…respondents also provided feedback on the efficacy of such an experience in preparing for practice across all practice settings. RESULTS: Quantitative and qualitative themes indicate that University alumni recognize significant educational benefits acquired through the experience of a mental health/psychological-social fieldwork level II experience. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health concepts as represented by psychological and social aspects are embedded in all domains of occupational therapy. Beginning with its strong foundational influence to the profession, there has been of late, a recent resurgence of knowledge and practice implications as noted by various official professional publications. The major finding of the study was that graduates indicated that a clinical experience in mental health did contribute significantly to their holistic practice skills. Recognizing the potential benefits of a psychosocial fieldwork level II experience with new, accentuated methods for student learning, may foster the development of mental health skills for utilization across all practice settings.
Keywords: Bio-psycho-social model, World Health Organization, foundational support, alumni survey, therapeutic use of self