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WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: The relation between empowerment and burnout was investigated using a two-wave and two-variable panel model. A questionnaire was completed on two occasions, one year apart, by 1,356 nurses. The paths in the model were estimated using regression analyses and the following results were obtained: (a) empowerment is a stable state; (b) higher levels of empowerment are related to lower levels of burnout, when empowerment and burnout are studied at the same point in time; (c) higher…prior levels of empowerment can be associated with higher later levels of burnout, when empowerment and burnout are studied at different points in time; (d) for assistant nurses, but not for registered nurses, prior higher levels of burnout resulted in lower later levels of empowerment, indicating a reciprocal relation between the two concepts. The results imply that what is a protective factor from a cross-sectional perspective may be a risk factor from a longitudinal perspective.
Abstract: Global competition in manufacturing sector demand higher productivity levels. In this context, workers in this sector are set with high output targets, leading to job strain. In addition to the strain, hazardous conditions also prevail in some of the manufacturing processes like foundry activities. This paper attempts to appraise the prevalence of job strain among foundry shop floor workers in India with the help of Demands-Control model . In this study, data was collected through a…survey using 49-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) , a widely used and well-validated test for job strain. Then the data was subjected to statistical analysis after ascertaining the reliability. This survey has revealed that 25% of workers in foundry were experiencing high job strain. Hazardous working conditions, limited decision making authority, etc. appear to be the main contributing factors for the higher levels of strain.
Keywords: Foundry, job strain, job content questionnaire (JCQ), demands-control model
Abstract: This study investigated the effect that load magnitude, load location, and the dimensions that the base of support have on postural sway in standing while wearing a backpack, single strapped bag, briefcase, or purse. Subjects were instructed to carry a load of 10% or 20% of their body weight with either their feet spaced shoulder width apart or together for a period of 45 seconds. Medial/lateral and anterior/posterior center of pressure (COP) displacement and COP velocity…were calculated. Overall, it was found that an increase in load magnitude produced an increase in postural sway and velocity of COP. In addition, a large increase in the medial/lateral COP velocity was observed when subjects carried a briefcase, single strapped bag, or purse. Additionally, a larger COP sway was recorded in conditions of standing with decreased base of support (feet together). These findings suggest the importance of considering the way we carry loads in order not only to place less strain on the body and to minimize our efforts, but to optimize postural control as well.
Abstract: Background: With increasing numbers of adults taking part in amateur athletic activity during leisure hours there have been indications that amateur athletic activity may have negative effects on musculoskeletal disease. A literature review focusing on musculoskeletal injuries among bowlers provided only limited references. Study objectives: Studying the characteristic of bowlers complaining of musculoskeletal disorders in general and of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders specifically, and locating the factors that statistically…predict musculoskeletal disorders among Israeli bowlers. Methods: The research population includes 98 amateur bowlers who attended two bowling clubs (cluster sampling). Musculoskeletal disorders of the research population were assessed by subjective report using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaires. Further use was made of questionnaires concerning bio-demographic data, work assessment, and the characteristics of the bowling game. Results: Sixty two percent of bowlers reported the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms in one or more of their body joints during the preceding year. Regression analysis with the number of painful joints in the upper extremities as a dependent variable revealed one main predictor: the number of leagues in which the bowler participated (β = 0.22, p < 0.03). When the dependent variable was the number of painful joints in the entire body, the statistical predictor was the average achievement of the bowlers (β = 0.40, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Research findings shed light on the unique musculoskeletal disorders of bowlers. Bowlers should be instructed with regard to what are the safe limits of their leisure activities.
Abstract: Aim: the aim of this study is to give an overview of the individual and workplace level factors affecting sickness absence and return to work based on international literature. Categorizing the individual and workplace level factors in a conceptual framework encompasses both sickness absence and return to work. Testing the practical use of the conceptual framework "The Dynamic Work Disability Model" in study design and interpretation of five studies in a Danish context. Methods:…The project features five prospective cohort studies focusing on associations between work environment and different sickness absence and return to work outcomes. These five studies utilize two different work environment cohorts and a national sickness absence register data. The following analyses were performed: Logistic, Cox, multilevel logistic and Poisson regressions. Results: A research project on sickness absence and return to work designed according to the "The Dynamic work Disability Model" contributed to an understanding of the proportions and basic epidemiology of work disability in a Danish labor market context. The use of "The Dynamic Work Disability Model" helped in designing and structuring the research project's sub-studies and supported a more systematic interpretation of the findings.
Keywords: Conceptual framework, work disability, prospective cohort study and register data
Abstract: The health sector in Québec (Canada) is dealing with profound macro-economic and macro-organizational changes. This article is interested in the impact of these changes on the work of home health aides (HHAs) and home care nurses and their occupational health and safety (OHS). The study was carried out in the home care services (HCS) of four local community service centres (CLSC) with different organizational characteristics. It is based on an analysis by triangulation of 66 individual…and group interviews, 22 observed workdays and 35 observed multidisciplinary or professional meetings, as well as on administrative documents. HHAs are experiencing an erosion of their job because the relational and affective aspects of their work are disappearing. This may be due to an increase in their physical workload, leading to an increase in musculoskeletal problems and, to a lesser extent, in psychological health problems. Nurses are seeing an increase in the volume of invisible work that they have to do, which also has the effect of decreasing the relational aspects of their activity. The increasingly numerous psychological health problems are the consequence of this change in their profession. This study also shows that managers' decisions at the local level can reduce or increase the work constraints of HHAs and nurses. Examples of good practices for HHAs are the stabilization of clienteles and the possibility of organizing their itinerary, while for nurses, it is in how clientele follow-up tools are implemented. This article discusses the effects of government policies and decisions on the work and OHS of home care personnel. To address this subject, we use a specific analysis of the workload of home health aides (HHAs) and nurses. We will show the relationships between managers' organizational choices to respond to governmental constraints and the resulting work changes. We will also look at their consequences on occupational health and safety (OHS) and on the work of different personnel.
Keywords: Change in professions, intensification, nurses, home health aides, organizational factors, OHS
Abstract: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a debilitating and expensive health problem. An inexpensive screening method that would differentiate between people who do not have CTS and those that may have CTS would be useful. The screening methodology investigated here had two phases: a structured interview and provocative vibrotactile testing (VT). The control group (n = 36) was composed of asymptomatic college students and faculty, the case group was composed of patients currently visiting an…occupational medicine clinic for symptoms consistent with CTS. The case group was subdivided into positive and negative for nerve conduction latency, NCL+ (n = 21) and NCL− (n = 13), respectively. Using a scored, structured interview, 33 of the controls and none of the symptomatic cases were identified as non-CTS. The results from the provocative flexion VT indicated that if the difference between the age corrected baseline and the threshold at 15 minutes is 15 μm or more, the subject was likely to be NCL+ (odds ratio 12.6, 95% CI 3.8 to 41.8). Further research may improve this screening methodology to not only determine whether or not a person has CTS, but also to determine the level of median nerve impingement or damage.
Abstract: Many women require vocational rehabilitation before they can return to work. The objective with the present study was to describe female clients' situation during the rehabilitation process, as it became apparent during the rehabilitation meetings with the various actors involved. The clients' diagnoses varied, but the majority was affected with musculoskeletal disorders. The meetings were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim, after which they were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The following themes emerged:…Adaptation to the rehabilitation group; client's health status; the workplace's significance for rehabilitation; and the client's decision-point. Conflict between health and work was immensely important for rehabilitation. Differences in attitude were apparent during the rehabilitation meetings, as some clients were passive and exercised less influence on the planning, than the other more active clients did.
Keywords: Adaptation, group process, women, qualitative research, vocational, rehabilitation
Abstract: Physical training (PT) is a significant component in the operational preparation for Canadian Forces (CF) combat divers. However, in developing the various components of a PT program, consideration must be given to the potential for increasing the risk of injury. Indeed, all PT programs should incorporate components that minimize risks of injury, thereby attempting to prevent injury. This report identifies high-risk activities associated with PT during a CF Combat Diving Course and contains recommendations for PT…modifications. Major high-risk activities identified were: inappropriate exercises, errors in exercise prescription, particularly in intensity and duration and incorrect lifting methods. From a specificity of training perspective, there is little support for the incorporation of 'dry land flutter kick' (i.e., repetitive, unsupported alternating straight leg raises), or high repetitions of push-ups, sit-ups and chin-ups in the training of CF combat diving candidates. Excessive use of these exercises, as performed during training, pose a high-risk for injury and are not recommended.