Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as hemoglobin, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer imaging. To validate its feasibility, we have built a prototype DOT imaging system which consists of a laser at the wavelength of 650 nm…and an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera. We have validated the CT guided DOT reconstruction algorithms with numerical simulations and phantom experiments, in which different imaging setup parameters, such as projection number of measurements and width of measurement patch, have been investigated. Our results indicate that an air-cooling EMCCD camera is good enough for the transmission mode DOT imaging. We have also found that measurements at six angular projections are sufficient for DOT to reconstruct the optical targets with 2 and 4 times absorption contrast when the CT guidance is applied. Finally, we have described our future research plan on integration of a multispectral DOT imaging system into a breast CT scanner.
Keywords: Diffuse optical tomography, multi-modality imaging, breast cancer imaging
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Currently, no standardized method for measuring intrahepatic fat density via conventional computed tomography (CT) exists. OBJECTIVE: We aim to quantify intrahepatic fat density via material decomposition analysis using rapid kilovolt peak-switching dual-energy (RSDE) CT. METHODS: Homogenized porcine liver and fat (lard) were mixed in various ratios to produce phantoms for fat density verification. The actual fat density was measured on the basis of the phantom volume and weight, and these measurements were used as reference densities. The fat and liver mass attenuation coefficients, which were used as the material basis pairs, were employed in…the material decomposition analysis. Then, the measured fat density of each phantom was compared with the reference densities. RESULTS: For fat content differences exceeding 2%, the measured fat density for the phantoms became statistically significant (p < 0.01). The correlation between the reference densities and RSDE-measured fat densities was reasonably high (R > 0.9997); this indicates the validity of this analysis method. CONCLUSIONS: Intrahepatic fat density can be measured using the mass attenuation coefficients of fat and liver in a material decomposition analysis. Given the knowledge of the accuracy and the limitations found in this study, our method can quantitatively evaluate fat density.
Abstract: Grating-based differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging enables the use of a hospital-grade X-ray tube, but compromises the image quality due to insufficiently coherent illumination. In this research, a bench-top DPC cone beam CT (DPC-CBCT) was systematically evaluated and compared with the traditional attenuation-based CBCT in terms of contrast to noise ratio, noise property, and contrast resolution through phantom studies. In order to evaluate DPC-CBCT for soft tissue imaging, breast specimen and small animal studies were carried out. Phantom studies indicate that phase image has lower-frequency noise, higher CNR, and improved contrast resolution. However, phase image quality was degraded in soft…tissue imaging due to coherence loss caused by small-angle scattering. Hence dark-field imaging was introduced to quantitatively investigate small-angle scattering caused by an object. Experimental results indicate that inhomogeneous objects affect phase contrast imaging, phase image is more sensitive to noise, and its performance is material dependent. Dark-field imaging could also be used to locate and reduce phase image noise and artifact caused by small-angle scattering.
Abstract: Antibacterial surfaces such as copper coatings are able to reduce the growth of bacteria. In this study, copper coatings was deposited on the 316 stainless steel substrates by a handmade device operating as an atmospheric plasma spraying system. The chemical composition microstructure and morphology surface of the coatings are examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and back scattering electron microscope (BSE). Micro hardness as one of the key properties of the coating is characterized based on cross-section. We also evaluate the thickness and the adhesion strength of the coating. Dissection material of coating is performed by…energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Further, the antibacterial activity of our coatings is assessed by both gram negative Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 and gram positive Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112 bacteria. As the last step, the antibacterial performance of the coated stainless steel surface with copper are compared to uncoated one. Results confirm that the copper coatings improve the antibacterial property of substrates and owning fine antibacterial behavior compared to stainless steel.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Non-intrusive inspection systems based on X-ray radiography techniques are routinely used at transport hubs to ensure the conformity of cargo content with the supplied shipping manifest. As trade volumes increase and regulations become more stringent, manual inspection by trained operators is less and less viable due to low throughput. Machine vision techniques can assist operators in their task by automating parts of the inspection workflow. Since cars are routinely involved in trafficking, export fraud, and tax evasion schemes, they represent an attractive target for automated detection and flagging for subsequent inspection by operators. OBJECTIVE: Development and…evaluation of a novel method for the automated detection of cars in complex X-ray cargo imagery. METHODS: X-ray cargo images from a stream-of-commerce dataset were classified using a window-based scheme. Limited number of car images was addressed by using an oversampling scheme. Different Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architectures were compared with well-established bag of words approaches. In addition, robustness to concealment was evaluated by projection of objects into car images. RESULTS: CNN approaches outperformed all other methods evaluated, achieving 100% car image classification rate for a false positive rate of 1-in-454. Cars that were partially or completely obscured by other goods, a modus operandi frequently adopted by criminals, were correctly detected. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this level of performance suggests that the method is suitable for deployment in the field. It is expected that the generic object detection workflow described can be extended to other object classes given the availability of suitable training data.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As recent studies have suggested relatively low α/β for prostate cancer, the interest in hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer is rising. The aim of this study is to compare dosimetric results of Cyberknife (CK) with Tomotherapy (HT) in SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Furthermore, the radiobiologic consequences of heterogeneous dose distribution are also analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 12 cases of localized prostate cancer previously treated with SBRT were collected. Treatments had been planned and delivered using CK. Then HT plans were generated for comparison afterwards. The prescribed dose…was 37.5Gy in 5 fractions. Dosimetric indices for target volumes and organs at risk (OAR) were compared. For radiobiological evaluation, generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were calculated and compared. RESULT: Both CK and HT achieved target coverage while meeting OAR constraints adequately. HT plans resulted in better dose homogeneity (Homogeneity index: 1.04±0.01 vs. 1.21±0.01; p = 0.0022), target coverage (97.74±0.86% vs. 96.56±1.17%; p = 0.0076) and conformity (new vonformity index: 1.16±0.05 vs. 1.21±0.04; p = 0.0096). HT was shown to predict lower late rectal toxicity as compared to CK. Integral dose to body was also significantly lower in HT plans (46.59±6.44 Gy’L vs 57.05±11.68 Gy’L; p = 0.0029). CONCLUSION: Based on physical dosimetry and radiobiologic considerations, HT may have advantages over CK, specifically in rectal sparing which could translate into clinical benefit of decreased late toxicities.
Keywords: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), prostate cancer, equivalent uniform dose (EUD), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), cyberknife, tomotherapy
Abstract: A method for urinary iodine diagnostics using a portable energy-dispersion X-ray fluorescent (EDXRF) spectrometer is proposed. The principle of the method consists in excitation of the sample atoms fluorescence by the energy spectrum intentionally formed from the spectrum of an X-ray tube using an optimized X-ray scheme. The optimization by the criterion of the minimum detection limit for L- series iodine fluorescence lines included the calculation of optimal atomic numbers for materials of a re-radiator and a filter, and their thicknesses, the collimation system parameters, and an X-ray tube voltage. Experimentally achieved detection limits were 45 and 75 μg/L by…I-L α and I-L β lines, respectively, at the theoretically extreme value 30 μg/L. This sensitivity is found to be sufficient for urinary iodine diagnostics in the range from 50 to 200 μg/L. The results obtained from different patients have shown the satisfactory convergence for the iodine concentration determination by L α and I-L β fluorescence lines. The simple sample preparation procedure and comparably small sizes of the apparatus allows rapid researches directly in clinical settings.
Abstract: Nowadays, diversities of task-specific applications for computed tomography (CT) have already proposed multiple challenges for algorithm design of image reconstructions. Consequently, efficient algorithm design tool is necessary to be established. A fast and efficient algorithm design framework for CT image reconstruction, which is based on alternating direction method (ADM) with ordered subsets (OS), is proposed, termed as OS-ADM. The general ideas of ADM and OS have been abstractly introduced and then they are combined for solving convex optimizations in CT image reconstruction. Standard procedures are concluded for algorithm design which contain 1) model mapping, 2) sub-problem dividing and 3) solving,…4) OS level setting and 5) algorithm evaluation. Typical reconstruction problems are modeled as convex optimizations, including (non-negative) least-square, constrained L1 minimization, constrained total variation (TV) minimization and TV minimizations with different data fidelity terms. Efficient working algorithms for these problems are derived with detailed derivations by the proposed framework. In addition, both simulations and real CT projections are tested to verify the performances of two TV-based algorithms. Experimental investigations indicate that these algorithms are of the state-of-the-art performances. The algorithm instances show that the proposed OS-ADM framework is promising for practical applications.
Keywords: Image reconstruction, alternating direction method, ordered subsets, optimization-based algorithm designframework, fast working algorithm design
Abstract: The objective of this study is to present and test a new ultra-low-cost linear scan based tomography architecture. Similar to linear tomosynthesis, the source and detector are translated in opposite directions and the data acquisition system targets on a region-of-interest (ROI) to acquire data for image reconstruction. This kind of tomographic architecture was named parallel translational computed tomography (PTCT). In previous studies, filtered backprojection (FBP)-type algorithms were developed to reconstruct images from PTCT. However, the reconstructed ROI images from truncated projections have severe truncation artefact. In order to overcome this limitation, we in this study proposed two backprojection filtering (BPF)-type…algorithms named MP-BPF and MZ-BPF to reconstruct ROI images from truncated PTCT data. A weight function is constructed to deal with data redundancy for multi-linear translations modes. Extensive numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the proposed MP-BPF and MZ-BPF algorithms for PTCT in fan-beam geometry. Qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that the proposed BPF-type algorithms cannot only more accurately reconstruct ROI images from truncated projections but also generate high-quality images for the entire image support in some circumstances.
Abstract: The King AbdulAziz City for Science & Technology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia plans to build a 10 MeV, 15 kW linear accelerator (LINAC) for electron beam and X-ray. The accelerator will be supplied by EB Tech, Republic of Korea, and the design and construction of the accelerator building will be conducted in the cooperation with EB Tech. This report presents the shielding analysis of the accelerator building using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). In order to improve the accuracy in estimating deep radiation penetration and to reduce computation time, various variance reduction techniques, including the weight window (WW)…method, the deterministic transport (DXTRAN) spheres were considered. Radiation levels were estimated at selected locations in the shielding facility running MCNP6 for particle histories up to 1.0×10+8 . The final results indicated that the calculated doses at all selected detector locations met the dose requirement of 50 mSv/yr, which is the United State Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) requirement.
Keywords: Monte Carlo transport, MCNP, electron linear accelerator, radiation shielding, occupational dose limit, variance reduction