Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 24, issue 2
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: In this study, we examine the potential of heart rate variability (HRV) as an efficient tool for predicting the onset of epilepsy in children. We totally collected 53 seizures EEG and ECG data using Video - EEG - ECG monitoring system. We then separated the ECG data into three segments: ten-minute before onset of each seizure, five-minute before onset of each seizure, and five-minute from the onset of each seizure. After the HRV parameters in all segments were calculated, we compared the differences between pre-ictal period and ictal period. We found that the values of meanHR, LF and LF/HF were…greater in onset period. And the values of meanRR and the HF were less in ictal period. And it presented the similar changes when seizures occurred in the daytime and seizures occurred in the nighttime. In brief, we found that the sympathetic nervous system was under a more active status during onset period. We speculated that the HRV parameters such as the LF, HF or LF/HF could have potential to predict the seizures in children with epilepsy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: During surgical procedures, the basal vein in the posterior incisural space is susceptible to obstruction. In such circumstances, venous infarction can occur along with venous damage. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate the microanatomy of the basal vein in the posterior incisural space with the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and computed tomographic venography (CTV). METHODS: Twenty cadavers and 42 patients were examined in this study. The head of each cadaver was injected with blue-colored gelatin via the internal jugular veins. Venograms for each patient were obtained from the venous phases of DSA…or CTV. RESULTS: Compared to the cadavers, in the patients, DSA and CTV revealed 90% and 95% of the basal vein, respectively. According to difference of entrance, three types of basal veins were identified. No statistical difference of typing was found among the cadavers, DSA images and CTV images. On three sides of the cadavers and one side of the CTV images, the basal vein entered the straight sinus through the meningeal vein in the tentorium cerebelli. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative DSA and CTV are useful in the design of individualized surgical approaches and the preservation of the basal vein in the posterior incisural space.
Abstract: The amygdala is an important brain area involved in cognitive procession and emotional regulation. Previous studies have typically considered the amygdala as a single structure, which likely masks contribution of individual amygdala subdivisions. Actually, the amygdala is heterogeneous and composed of structurally and functionally distinct nuclei, which may present different connectivity patterns and predict to relevant cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, little is known about functional connectivity of amygdala subregions in the resting state in AD subjects. Here, we employed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine functional connectivity changes of subregions comparing the AD patients with the age-matched…control subjects. Thirty-two AD and 38 control subjects were analyzed. We defined three subregions of the amygdala according to probabilistic cytoarchitectonic atlases and mapped the whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity for each subregion: The central medial nucleus (CM) of amygdala exhibited connections with the lentiform nucleus, parahippocampus and lateral temporal gyrus; the lateral basal nucleus (LB) of amygdala functionally connected with the parahippocampus, lateral temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex; and the superficial nucleus (SF) of amygdala had connection with the parahippocampus, lentiform nucleus, lateral temporal gyrus, insula, middle occipital gyrus, precentral and postcentral gyrus. Comparing with the controls, the AD patients presented disrupted connectivity patterns in the LB of amygdala, which predicted disconnection with the left uncus, right insula, right precentral gyrus, the left superior temporal gyrus and right claustrum. These findings in a large part supported our hypothesis and provided a new insight in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of AD.