Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation - Volume 45, issue 2
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Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation will provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of information about the major areas that constitute vocational rehabilitation.
Periodically, there will be topics that are directed either to specific themes such as long-term care or different disability groups such as those with psychiatric impairment. Often a guest editor who is an expert in the given area will provide leadership on a specific topic issue. However, all articles received directly or submitted for a special issue are welcome for peer review. The emphasis will be on publishing rehabilitation articles that have immediate application for helping rehabilitation counselors, psychologists and other professionals in providing direct services to people with disabilities.
Original research articles, review articles, program descriptions, and case studies will be considered for publication. Ideas for special topical issues are welcomed as well.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Much of previous research on multiple sclerosis (MS) and employment has focused on people of European descent who acquire the disease, and very little is known about the experiences and concerns of people with MS from traditionally underrepresented racial and ethnic groups (e.g., African-Americans, Hispanics/Latinos), even though evidence indicates that the incidence of MS is increasing among non-Caucasians worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify high-priority employment concerns from Hispanics/Latinos with MS, whose needs for services and supports must be better understood to increase rehabilitation success of people with MS. METHODS:…This article presents descriptive findings from a national survey of the employment concerns of Hispanics/Latinos with multiple sclerosis (MS; N = 206). Representing nine chapters of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, respondents were asked to evaluate 38 employment concerns items on two dimensions, importance and satisfaction, for the purpose of identifying strengths and weaknesses in the employment policies and practices affecting the labor force participation of people with MS. RESULTS: Results revealed a total of 29 employment strengths and nine employment weaknesses. CONCLUSION: Implications of these findings for rehabilitation policy and service delivery are examined.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Research examining the provision of effective state vocational rehabilitation agency (SVRA) sponsored services is pertinent to improving successful return-to-work outcomes among veterans of color (i.e., African Americans, Native Americans or Alaska Natives, Latinos, and Asian Americans or Pacific Islanders versus non-Latino Whites). To date, however, scant attention has been paid to examining these target groups’ outcome patterns. OBJECTIVE: This study employed a stratified bootstrap data expansion approach to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity, gender, level of educational attainment at closure and return-to-work among veterans with a signed individualized plan for employment (IPE). METHODS: National…fiscal year (FY) 2013 Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA)-911 case records (N = 11,603) were extracted and re-sampled across multiple trials using bootstrap procedures to increase logistic regression model accuracy. RESULTS: The findings indicated that African American and female veterans were statistically significantly less likely to return-to-work compared to non-Latino White and female veterans, respectively. Return-to-work probabilities were ‘poorest’ for African American veterans followed by Native Americans or Alaska Natives, Asian Americans or Pacific Islanders, Latinos, and then non-Latino Whites. CONCLUSIONS: These findings warrant new service (e.g., greater SVRA and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs’ (VA) co-service provision) and policy initiatives.
Keywords: Veterans of color, return-to-work outcomes and probabilities, bootstrap data expansion approaches
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although there is considerable research that has identified effective strategies to support the transition from school to adult life for young adults with disabilities, post-school outcomes for culturally linguistically or economically diverse (CLED) students with disabilities, particularly students who are Black and have disabilities, remain abysmal. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on transition practices for students who are Black and have disabilities to determine what is known about their unique challenges, as well as what can be done to improve their postschool outcomes. METHODS: The current published literature was reviewed to identify articles…that examined the impact of transition practices on postschool outcomes for students who are Black and have disabilities. RESULTS: Although the research literature on students who are Black and have disabilities in transition programs is limited, a number of practices were identified as improving transition planning and services for these students, including several that enhance student self-determination in the process. CONCLUSIONS: As the postschool outcomes for this group of youth students who are Black and have disabilities continues to be abysmal, this review of the literature revealed that there is a need to conduct research to further identify barriers and effective practices needed to overcome them. Implications for practice as well as further research are discussed.
Keywords: Transition, youth with disabilities, cultural diversity, culturally responsive practices, Black youth with disabilities, post-school outcomes
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Many disability researchers have advocated for the use of assistive technology to enhance quality of life for persons with disabilities. However, it has been documented that minorities and veterans are two groups that underutilize the resource. OBJECTIVE: To use the Human Activity Assistive Technology (HAAT) model to explore assistive technology (AT) use among veterans, specifically examining race, gender, age, socioeconomic determinants (e.g. marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and income), access to health care, general health, and disability status. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the national 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Descriptive…statistics, chi-square analyses, and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Black veterans used AT more than White veterans, which was consistent with the predictions that indicated that Black veterans were 1.3 times more likely to use AT (OR = 1.30 CI: 1.20–1.42). However, White veterans who used AT had a higher socioeconomic status compared to Black veterans who used AT. More White veterans were married, had higher educational attainment levels, were employed, and had higher income levels. White veterans also had better health coverage, fewer issues with medical costs and better general health. Whereas all of the predictors of AT use were significant for White veterans, only age (p < 0.001), employment status (p < 0.001), income (p = 0.006), medical costs (p = 0.049), general health (p < 0.001), and limiting disability status (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of AT use for Black veterans. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in AT use between White and Black veterans based on socioeconomic determinants, access to health care, general health, and disability status. Different predictors and differences in magnitude were observed. Racial differences can partially be explained by components of the HAAT model such as the type of activity that the human is engaging in (e.g. employment) and the context (e.g. the environment).
Keywords: Assistive technology, race, veterans, socioeconomic status (SES), disability disparities
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The persistent patterns of unsatisfactory transition experiences and adult outcomes of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) youth with disabilities are well documented in existing transition literature. The consequences of these circumstances for this unique population of individuals with disabilities are long term and far reaching, both individually and collectively. Unfortunately, despite many years of transition outcomes research, there is a dearth of literature on effective empirically-based culturally reciprocal transition practices. OBJECTIVE: In this conceptual article, we provide a framework for thinking about how to best plan for and facilitate positive transition outcomes for CLD youth with…disabilities who come from families whose value systems differ from those of mainstream American society. Specifically we present a person-family interdependent approach to transition that emphasizes family empowerment, sustainability of transition services, and adaptations to the transition planning process. CONCLUSION: In contrast and in comparison to the more traditional approach to transition that is currently practiced in American public schools, we believe that this person-family interdependent approach, if adopted, may result in better long term transition outcomes for CLD youth with disabilities as well as greater satisfaction of their families with the transition planning process.
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Employment of people with disabilities continues to be a concern in the field of rehabilitation counseling. Employment rates remain low, resulting in many people with disabilities living at or below the poverty line. OBJECTIVE : The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of Hispanic small business owners toward hiring people with disabilities. METHODS : The 38-item Employer Attitudes Questionnaire (EAQ) and the 33-item Small Business Owners Survey (SBOS) were used to investigate attitudes and concerns about hiring issues along with the business owners’ general feelings toward the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Survey…packets were distributed in the business districts of two selected cities in southern Texas. Two hundred and seventeen participants took part in the study. RESULTS : The findings suggest that there is a range of views about the capabilities of workers from various disability categories as well as differing opinions on the cost of reasonable accommodations. The results of a regression analysis yielded three significant predictors influencing hiring decisions: whether the business owner had a family member or a friend with a disability, the business owner’s marital status, and their awareness of the ADA. CONCLUSIONS : There is a continuing need to educate small business owners about disability- and employment-rights legislation; however, cost considerations to provide reasonable accommodations for people with disabilities seem to be significantly more important for small business owners than for large corporations.
Keywords: Attitudes, employment, disability, small business owners
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Incessant migration trends of persons of color to the United States warrant the identification of promising forecast models to help state vocational rehabilitation agencies (SVRAs), policy makers, researchers, and advocates inform strategic plans, policy formulation, and research agenda development. OBJECTIVE: This study demonstrated and assessed the efficacy of two different multivariate empirical forecast models’ (i.e., Vector Autoregressive [VAR] model and Multivariable Grey Model [MGM]) ability to accurately predict immigration (Blacks [e.g., Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Cameroon], American Indians or Alaskan Natives [e.g., Canada, Mexico], Asians [e.g., China, India, Vietnam, Korea, Japan], Native Hawaiian or other Pacific…Islanders [e.g., the Philippines], and Latinos [e.g., Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Cuba, Dominican Republic] trends’ impact on new unduplicated application rates among minorities. METHOD: Nine years of Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA)-911 case record data (fiscal year [FY] 2006 thru 2014) on SVRA applications and U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey 1-year estimates (calendar year 2006 thru 2014) on foreign born persons were entered into the VAR model and MGM to test their predictive performance. RESULTS: The MGM was demonstrated to be superior to the VAR model in predictive accuracy. The MGM three-year forecast projected an upward curve trend trajectory in the percentage of new Black or African American, American Indian or Alaskan Natives, Asians, and Latino SVRA applicants for FYs 2015 thru 2017. CONCLUSION: The MGM can be considered for use by SVRAs as a promising tool to help them respond appropriately to the needs of new immigrants and other minority group members.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) provides counseling, training, job placement, assistive technology and other support services to people with disabilities. VR counselors work to find employment consistent with their client’s strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests and informed choice. In order for VR counselors to be successful and effective in providing these services, it is important to know the client’s full history. A great number of VR clients have criminal histories or have been adjudicated for crimes committed. According to the RSA-911 Technical Report, however criminal history is not a part of the VR national scope. OBJECTIVE:…The following article discusses how the omission of criminal history has and will continue to have a significant impact on those clients in securing employment; and indirectly, affecting the success rate of VR. CONCLUSIONS: Suggestions for how to include criminal history are also included.