Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation - Volume 43, issue 2
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Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation will provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of information about the major areas that constitute vocational rehabilitation.
Periodically, there will be topics that are directed either to specific themes such as long-term care or different disability groups such as those with psychiatric impairment. Often a guest editor who is an expert in the given area will provide leadership on a specific topic issue. However, all articles received directly or submitted for a special issue are welcome for peer review. The emphasis will be on publishing rehabilitation articles that have immediate application for helping rehabilitation counselors, psychologists and other professionals in providing direct services to people with disabilities.
Original research articles, review articles, program descriptions, and case studies will be considered for publication. Ideas for special topical issues are welcomed as well.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of college or university training on earnings of individuals with disabilities receiving services through the public vocational rehabilitation system. METHODS: A non-experimental case-control study design. Data for 178,290 individuals closed as successfully rehabilitation in fiscal year 2011 were extracted from the Rehabilitation Services Administration Case Service Report (RSA-911) database. RESULTS: Propensity scores were estimated based on demographic variables using the classification and regression tree (CART) method, which yielded six homogeneous subgroups, ranging from high propensity to received college or university training as a vocational rehabilitation intervention to low propensity to…receive such service. Individuals who received college/university training had higher weekly earnings than those who did not, and had the greatest benefit for young adults; White, Asian, or Native American women with physical impairments; and people with mental impairments. CONCLUSION: College or university training should be considered as a viable and beneficial option to improve employment outcomes and job quality for individuals with disabilities.
Keywords: Vocational rehabilitation, postsecondary education, people with disabilities, case control study
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study examined data provided by the U.S. Department of Education’s Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) in an effort to evaluate the impact of demographic variables, vocational rehabilitation services, and agency characteristics on the employment outcomes obtained by transition-age youth (i.e., 16 to 25 years old) with visual impairments and blindness. RESULTS: Results indicated that young adults who were male, Hispanic, between the ages of 23 and 25, not receiving Social Security disability benefits, and diagnosed with less severe visual impairments were more likely to become employed than younger, female, Caucasian young adults with more…severe visual impairments who were receiving Social Security disability benefits. Receiving reader and assistive technology services also predicted successful employment outcomes. CONCLUSION: Results of this investigation document the importance of individualized VR services that promote long-term career success for transition-age youth with visual impairments and blindness.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with employment outcomes of veterans with substance use disorders. METHODS: Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) was used to explore how interactions between participant entry characteristics and treatment participation variables relate to employment outcome. Participants included 46,641 veterans with substance use disorders from the Veterans Health Administration’s Compensated Work Therapy (CWT) Programs during the period of 1993 to 2005 The data used in this study were administrative archival data routinely collected by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) from all CWT programs nationwide.…RESULTS: Factors most highly associated with competitive employment outcome included greater treatment intensity, defined as higher weekly mean earnings and longer treatment duration; higher vocational functioning prior to admission defined as a shorter length of time since employed for at least a month; and participation in a transitional work experience position on the VA grounds. CONCLUSION: The CHAID analysis was able to construct an optimal model using participant entry characteristics and treatment participation variables to explain the variance in the dependent variable, employment outcome. Through the process of segmentation of the sample into mutually exclusive homogeneous subgroups with different probabilities of positive outcomes, CHAID provided detailed information about interactions between the participant entry characteristics and treatment participation variables on the one hand and the outcome variables on the other.
Keywords: Employment, vocational rehabilitation, substance use, veteran, data mining
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the vocational, educational, and residential outcomes achieved by adults with a Dual Diagnosis (DD) of Intellectual Disability (ID) and Mental Illness (MI). RESULTS: Approximately, one out of five applicants to Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) who had ID met the criteria for DD in 2013. Individuals with DD were found to work fewer hours and earn less pay weekly than applicants with ID-only and MI-only. Regarding vocation, applicants with DD were less likely to be employed than applicants with ID-only, although the same was not observed in comparison…to the MI-only group. Furthermore, individuals with DD were the least likely to achieve a high school diploma. Finally, results indicated that most applicants with DD resided in group homes and were the least likely of all comparison groups to live in private residences. CONCLUSION: Individuals with DD comprise a significant portion of applicants seeking VR services, but more needs to be done to understand their prevalence, characteristics, and outcomes they achieve.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In this study, investigators examined the employment discrimination experiences of older workers (55 and over) with disabilities in comparison to younger adult workers with disabilities. OBJECTIVE: To examine age as a differential indicator of demographic characteristics of the Charging Parties, characteristics of Employers against whom allegations were filed, the discrimination issues alleged to occur, and the legal outcome of allegation investigations. METHODS: The study utilized data from the Integrated Mission System of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). RESULTS: Findings indicate that allegations filed by older Charging…Parties were more likely to come from males and Caucasians and to involve more nonparalytic orthopedic, cardiovascular, vision, hearing, endocrinological, respiratory, and other age-related impairments. Allegations filed by older Charging Parties involved fewer mental health concerns, substance use disorders, blood and immune disorders, developmental disabilities, and chronic illnesses such as multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. Allegations filed by older workers were less likely to involve involuntary termination and more likely to involve work assignments, the terms and conditions of employment, layoff, and involuntary retirement. No significant differences in the proportions of allegations were observed related to the size of respondent employers or the outcomes of the EEOC’s investigatory process. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that many of the workplace discrimination experiences of people with disabilities are common across age groups, and that partial support is evident for ‘double jeopardy’ in the treatment of older workers with disabilities. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Workplace discrimination, older workers with disabilities
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of employment for young African American men recovering from substance use disorders. METHODS: Data for 684 young African American men with substance use disorders were extracted from the Rehabilitation Services Administration’s (RSA) Case Service Report (RSA-911) database. Logistic regression analysis using the purposeful selection approach was utilized to identify predictors of competitive employment. RESULTS: Young African American men recovering from substance use disorders who received on-the-job supports, job placement, information and referral services, and other services were more likely to attain competitive…employment than those who did not receive these vocational rehabilitation services. Interestingly, job readiness training and job search assistance were not significant predictors of successful employment outcomes, suggesting that for clients facing multiple intersecting stigmas, it may be more realistic and effective to use the selective placement approach to find and match them directly with job openings and provide them with ongoing supports to help them build a meaningful work history. CONCLUSIONS: Vocational rehabilitation services have significant positive impact on employment outcomes for young African American men recovering from substance use disorders. Collaboration between rehabilitation and other health professionals to promote the use of employment services to improve public health outcomes for young African American men is warranted.
Keywords: Vocational rehabilitation, African American youth, substance abuse, employment, public health
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To test the Social-Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) as a STEM career interests and goal persistence model for minority college students with disabilities. METHODS: A quantitative descriptive research design using path analysis. Participants included 115 minority college students with disabilities from the Min ority D isability Alliance in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (MIND Alliance) project. RESULTS: The results indicated that the SCCT causal model fits the data very well, with χ 2 /df = 1.15; CFI = 0.99; and RMSEA = 0.04. SCCT constructs accounted for 16% of the variance in STEM career interest and…48% of the variance in STEM goal persistence. CONCLUSION: The SCCT model provides useful guidance for designing postsecondary education interventions for minority students with disabilities in STEM education to help crystalize their career interest and increase goal persistence.
Keywords: Social-Cognitive Career Theory, underrepresented minorities, disabilities, STEM career interest, STEM goalpersistence