Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Volume 9, issue 4
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Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal, publishing articles in the field of child infectious diseases. The journal provides an in-depth update on new subjects and current comprehensive coverage of the latest techniques in diagnosis and treatment of childhood infectious diseases.
The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor and book reviews.
The aim of the
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of pediatric infectious diseases.
Abstract: The clinical diagnosis of rubella is unreliable as the symptoms are often confused with other viral and non-viral exanthematic illnesses. Acquired forms are self-limiting whereas the congenital type has devastating consequences on the foetus. The aim of this study is to highlight rubella infections in children and to draw to the attention of relevant authorities the need for routine rubella immunization for children and women of childbearing ages. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from…February to December 2012. Thirty five children aged 2 to 18 years, were referred to selected health facilities in Calabar following reports of symptoms of fever and skin rash, clinically resembling measles. The demographic data of the children were obtained. Blood was collected from each child and sent for measles and rubella IgM ELISA. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16. Of the 35 children with fever and skin rash, 22 were males while 13 were females (1.7:1). Fourteen (40%) of the children were found to be IgM seropositive for rubella. Five (35.7%) of rubella IgM seropositive children were less than five years of age while 7 (50%) were 5–10 years old. There was no significant difference in the seropositivity for rubella IgM antibody according to age and sex of the patients and (P=12.5). Only one child (2.8%) was positive for measles IgM. Acute rubella infection is clinically indistinguishable from measles and is confirmed to be present in Calabar, Nigeria. We therefore advocate for routine immunisation of children and women of childbearing ages to prevent the damaging effects of rubella to the unborn baby.
Abstract: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide including Sri Lanka. This study was undertaken to determine the viral causes and clinical manifestations of ARTI in pre-school children (Age ⩽ 3 years) from the Kegalle area of the Sabaragamuwa Province of Sri Lanka. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) from 98 children ⩽ 3 years presenting with ARTI were tested by indirect (screening) and direct (typing) immunofluorescence assay for the presence…of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B, parainfluenza viruses 1, 2 and 3 and adenoviruses. A respiratory virus was detected in 32.3% of cases: RSV 90%, parainfluenza type 2 virus 6% and influenza virus 4%. Detection of RSV was associated with severe cases of bronchiolitis requiring hospitalization. These findings show the importance of viral pathogens in ARTI in pre-school children in Sri Lanka and highlight the diversity of viral pathogens detected in this age group.
Keywords: Viral etiology, children, acute respiratory tract infection, Sri Lanka
Abstract: In India, Plasmodium falciparum is recognized as an important cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. However, recent observations suggest there is an increasing incidence of severe cases of P. vivax, including acute renal failure. All patients in the age group 0–15 yr, presenting with fever, admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, during the study period were tested for malarial parasites. Those positive for P. vivax and/or P. falciparum…were included in the study; clinical findings and laboratory investigations were recorded and analysed. A total of 112 subjects belonging to the age group 0–15 yr were included in the study. P. vivax was detected in 70 (62.5%) and P. falciparum in 42 (37.5%). Many patients with P. vivax demonstrated signs and symptoms of severe malaria, including respiratory symptoms in 12 (17.1%), abdominal symptoms in 39 (55.7%), central nervous system symptoms in 19 (27.1%), pallor in 60 (85.7%), icterus in 9 (12.9%), edema in 15 (21.4%), hypotension in 3 (4.3%), hepatomegaly in 49 (70%) and splenomegaly in 51 (72.9%). 12.9% of P. vivax patients had acute renal failure (ARF). There is a rising incidence of P. vivax cases causing severe malaria. ARF, which was previously considered to be only due to P. falciparum, is now also caused by P. vivax. P. vivax should no longer be considered a benign species causing only non-severe malaria.
Abstract: We aimed to study ferritin as an acute phase marker in pediatric infections, and investigate its' clinical significance in the emergency department management of the febrile child. Multiple inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and serum ferritin, and other iron studies were measured in 37 children, from 3 months through 8 years of age, presenting to the emergency department with temperature of ⩾ 39 degrees Celsius, and 38 patients in the same age group with…non-febrile illness. Mean serum ferritin was significantly higher in the febrile group 71.4 ng/mL compared to the non-febrile group 45.1 ng/mL (p< 0.003). Ferritin/iron ratio was 5.28 in the febrile group and 1.72 in the non-febrile group (p< 0.046). Mean serum iron level was significantly lower in the in Febrile compared to non-febrile children. Mean serum iron was also significantly lower in the subgroup of children with bacterial infection: 17.5 μg/dL compared to the group with viral infection 27.1 μg/dL (p< 0.001). The results of this pilot study in the Emergency Department setting confirm previous work from hospitalized patients indicating that ferritin is increased and serum iron is decreased in pediatric infections. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to further explore the role of serum iron as a marker of bacterial infection.
Keywords: Ferritin, serum iron, pediatric infections, iron sequestration
Abstract: Hemorrhagic cystitis is often a serious condition in cancer patients and can be life threatening despite aggressive treatment measures. The condition may be secondary to infections, radiation or chemotherapy. Oxazaphosphorine alkylating agents, such as cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, are the most frequent causes of chemotherapy-induced HC in cancer patients. Only a few cases of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in non-transplant cancer patients have been reported worldwide. Here, we report two cases of BK-induced…HC in non-transplant oncology patients; one patient died due to multi-system failure of unknown etiology, and the other patient was treated successfully with low-dose cidofovir.
Keywords: BK virus, hemorrhagic cystitis, non-transplant, low-dose cidofovir
Abstract: Tuberculous peritonitis is a rare condition in children that requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for detection. We report on a child who presented only with joint pain and was subsequently found to have peritoneal tuberculosis.
Abstract: Acute onset transient thrombocytopenia is a known complication of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein Barr virus infection. Infectious mononucleosis presenting with severe thrombocytopenia resulting in life threatening bleeding is rare, and may cause diagnostic confusion with more sinister conditions like acute leukemia. We report one such case of severe bleeding in association with Epstein Barr virus infection in a previously healthy adolescent girl and discuss the possible mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in infectious…mononucleosis.
Abstract: Dengue fever (DF) is an important public health problem in developing countries like India, with a high morbidity and mortality. The clinical spectrum of dengue is highly variable, ranging from a mild flu-like syndrome to severe disease, with shock and hemorrhage. Concurrent septicemia in patients with dengue fever is rare and only few cases have been reported. In previous reports Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteriaceae have been the predominant pathogens; to our knowledge septicemia with…Pseudomonas aeruginosa has not been previously reported. Here, we report an 8 month old child with P. aeruginosa septicemia with classical ecthyma gangrenosum in conjunction with DF who was successfully treated by early commencement of anti-pseudomonal antibiotics.