Journal of Berry Research - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.), the most popular berries grown and consumed all over the world, have a unique composition of bioactive compounds, including polyphenols that determine the quality, nutritional value and sensorial properties of those fruits. The study has provided data suggesting that there are links between the presence of bioactive compounds in strawberry leaves and the presence of those compounds in strawberry fruit. OBJECTIVE: Newly released and standard June-bearing strawberry cultivars (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) were analysed with the aim of evaluating the content of health-related compounds in the fruit and leaves.…RESULTS: The cultivars ‘Clery’ and the newly released ‘Joly’ are promising due to high levels of bioactive compounds in their fruit. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the leaves was about 15 times higher than the TEAC of the fruit. Total phenolic compounds (TPC) were an important factor influencing the TEAC values of the fruit (r = 0.86). No significant correlation was found between TPC and TEAC in the leaves. The highest levels of bioactive compounds (TPC) were observed in the cultivars ‘Selvik’, ‘Diana’ and ‘Clery’. In all of the analysed cultivars a high content of agrimoniin in the leaves was correlated with low TPC and TEAC values in the fruit. Additionally, the content of free ellagic acid in the leaves showed a good correlation with the cinnamic acid derivative and ferulic acid hexose derivative in the fruit. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of the content of agrimoniin and free ellagic acid in strawberry leaves could help breeders to identify cultivars with a high antioxidant capacity and a high content of TPC, cinnamic acid derivatives and ferulic acid hexose derivatives in the fruit without waiting until fructification. The paper discusses this innovative conceptual approach to increasing breeding efficiency.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Since the consumption of fresh blackberries has increased, the demand for new cultivars with extended postharvest quality that meet consumer expectations has increased. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify fresh-market blackberry genotypes with high postharvest potential and evaluate changes in physiochemical and sensory attributes. METHODS: Fruit quality, chemical composition and descriptive sensory attributes of five blackberry cultivars (Natchez, Osage, Ouachita, Prime-Ark ® 45 and Prime-Ark ® Traveler) and six advanced breeding selections from the University of Arkansas Fruit Breeding Program were evaluated at harvest and after 7 days of storage (2°C…and 90% RH). Fruit quality (firmness, red drupes, weight loss and unmarketability) and chemical composition (basic composition and phytochemicals) were evaluated, and a trained descriptive sensory panel (n = 8-9) evaluated blackberry attributes for appearance, basic tastes, feeling factors, aromatics and texture. RESULTS: The blackberries had soluble solids of 6.6–10.9% and titratable acidity of 0.5–1.5% at harvest. ‘Natchez’ had the lowest percent of unmarketable fruit (2.9%) and A-2418 had the highest (53.6%) after 7 days of postharvest storage. After 7 days of storage, ‘Natchez’ and A-2453 had low incidence of red drupelets and high uniformity of color and ‘Natchez’ and A-2491 were associated with the sensory attributes of sweetness and overall aromatic impact. The sensory panelists could not perceive differences in color, uniformity of color, glossiness, firmness or sweetness after storage, but perceived blackberries as more astringent and less sour and bitter after storage. These sensory findings correspond with the fruit quality and chemical composition data that indicated no changes for incidence of red drupelets, firmness or soluble solids of blackberries after storage. However, blackberries had increased total phenolics, flavonols, anthocyanins and ellagitannins, and decreased titratable acidity after storage. After storage, total phenolics and total ellagitannins of blackberries were positively correlated to bitter and sour basic tastes. CONCLUSION: Fruit quality and chemical composition analyses correlated to sensory attributes and may assist blackberry breeders in developing cultivars with extended postharvest storage and superior fruit attributes. ‘Natchez’, A-2453 and A-2491 showed positive fruit attributes in this study and have potential for the development of future cultivars or used as parents for crosses in blackberry breeding programs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Blackberries (Rubus spp .) are fruits rich in secondary components (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, carotenoids and others), recognized for their health benefits. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the content of different types of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in several extracts of three varieties of blackberry fruit (Rubus adenotrichos ) (red thorned, thornless and sweet), using different blackberry standards. METHODS: The varieties of blackberry fruit were analyzed in three stages of maturation (green, red and black). The evaluation of the phenolic compounds was carried out by applying commercial standards and own standards to the same…samples, following the Folin-Ciocalteu, differential pH, DMAC, and ORAC procedures. RESULTS: The red thorned variety presented the best results with a concentration of polyphenols of 183.0±0.5 mg GAE/g DS, antioxidant capacity of 3322±10 μmol TEAC/g DS, a value of 15.4±0.3 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside eq/g DS of anthocyanins, and a value of 9.26±0.03 mg 4'-O -methylgallocatechin eq/g DS for of proanthocyanidin content. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the limitation of a currently used standard, gallic acid and 4'-O -methylgallocatechin, for quantification of total polyphenols and proanthocyanidin respectively, and outline the development and validation of a more robust and accurate standard for blackberry fruit analysis.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Seabuckthorn (SBT) has recently gained worldwide attention for its medicinal and nutritional potential. Many of the claims associated with SBT are related to its phenolics and antioxidants. OBJECTIVE: The work aimed at studying the variability and genotypic effects on total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in seed. METHOD: Seed extracts of nine natural population of SBT (122 plants) were studied for TPC, TFC and TAC content. RESULTS: SBT seed were found to be rich in TPC ranging from 32 to 208 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW.…Flavonoid content ranged from 8 to 38 mg quercetin equivalent/g of DW. The free radical-scavenging activity in terms of inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) ranged from 0.3 to 9.2 mg/ml and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) from 11 to 97 mmol Fe (II)/g. CONCLUSION: A variation of 1–6.5 fold in TPC, 1–4.7 fold variation in TFC, 1–8.8 fold in ferric reducing antioxidant potential and, 1–30.6 folds in IC50 by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay among the examined seeds across nine populations underlines the important role played by genetic background and the geographical location for determining the health promoting compounds.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fruits like blackcurrant, blueberry and maqui berry stand out for their high content of anthocyanins that give products an attractive red colour, in addition to their rich composition of other polyphenols and vitamins. Comprehensive understanding of thermal properties of foods and quantitative changes in quality attributes are necessary for the proper design of thermal processes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the kinetics of monomeric anthocyanin (MAcy) and colour degradation due to thermal processing of pulps of blackcurrant, blueberry and maqui berry produced in El Bolsón, Argentina. METHODS: Anthocyanins content…was measured with pH-differential method. CIELab parameters were obtained with a Minolta Spectrophotometer, total phenolics were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. MAcy degradation and evolution of colour parameter a* were fitted to a first–order model. RESULTS: Activation energies for anthocyanins losses were between 81 and 94 kJ/mol, and for the deterioration of colour between 85 and 89 kJ/mol. In the case of deterioration of anthocyanins, maqui berry presented the highest values of half-life times especially at 90°C. In the case of colour, blackcurrant showed greater stability showing average colour degradation half-life times between 5 and 11 times higher than those of anthocyanins loss. CONCLUSIONS: Kinetic parameters calculated for different berry juices can be used to design a thermal treatment to obtain a high retention of colour and bioactive compounds.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cissus sicyoides berries are currently underutilized and may be a potentially novel source of antioxidants. Extracts from the leaves of this vine are utilized in traditional medicine. The chemical composition and functional properties of C. sicyoides berries were investigated. OBJECTIVE: Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) an essential enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway was characterized and the antioxidant properties, fatty acid profile and mineral content of the berries evaluated. METHODS: The PAL, free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content of C. sicyoides berries were determined by use of a spectrophotometric assay. Lipids…were extracted, methylated and the fatty acid methyl esters identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The chemical composition of the berries was also evaluated by infra red spectroscopy. RESULTS: The PAL enzyme from C. sicyoides exhibits Michaelis Menten kinetics with the substrate phenylalanine (Km , 1.21±0.28 mM) and has a Vmax of 6.24±0.28 μM/min. The enzyme has a temperature optimum of 25°C and a pH optimum of 7.5. C. sicyoides berries possess high free radical scavenging activity (84.4±4.4%) and contain a phenolic content of 3.2±0.4 mg gallic acid/g dry weight. Berry extracts had an ascorbic acid concentration of 2.8±0.1 mg/mL. The major fatty acids identified in extracts of the fruit include palmitic acid (43.6±1.8%), oleic acid (13.8±1.7%) and linoleic acid (13.9±2.0%). The oil has a predicted iodine value of 35. Berry extracts had a refractive index of 17 °Brix. A positive Fehlings test confirmed the presence of reducing sugars. The fruit is low acid with a pH of 6, and a titratable acidity of 0.165 g of tartaric acid per 100 mL of juice. FTIR analysis of ashed samples indicated the presence of the minerals potassium and phosphorus. CONCLUSION: C. sicyoides berries possess high levels of free radical scavenging activity and may be a novel source of antioxidants.
Abstract: OBJECT: Improved precision fertilization by introducing sensors and remote control to secure fruit yield and reduce nutrient leaching in soil culture. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We broadcasted before bedding and mulching 50 g m–2 of a multi-mineral fertilizer. Beds had two plant rows 20 cm apart, with plant distance of 25 cm. Experimental design was split plot with three replications and three treatments. Treatments: fertigation in large plots, cultivar in small plots and year. RESULTS: Plant development in the establishing year had no benefit of fertigation in addition to fertilizer given before bedding. When the yield is 3 kg…m–2 a nutrient solution of 6 g N m–2 gave highest yield, using 4 g m–2 from two weeks before harvest and during harvest. ‘Florence’ and ‘Sonata’ developed well; however, ‘Florence’ had mildew on fruits in the last cropping year. ‘Korona’ presented well the first cropping year, but grew small fruits heavily infested by mildew in the last cropping year. CONCLUSION: Fertilization had effect on fruit yield. It is discussed how a fertilization schedule for the establishment year and cropping years can be adapted to plant development stages. Mildew infestation on fruits was dependent of cultivar and fertilization. Introducing sensors for recording of growth factors and in situ ion-levels of soil water nutrients, proved valuable.
Keywords: Cultivar, fruit yield, ions, NBI, water, soil depth, leaching
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Berries such as Rubus has caught the attention of scientists and consumers because of their nutritional quality. Furthermore, the presence of phenolic compounds specifically anthocyanins have added potential of antiaging, anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant properties to the fruit. Gene expression studies have demonstrated the importance of flavonoids and their biosynthetic pathways, further increasing the research interests alternative and natural sources for these compounds. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to analyze the level of expression of β-Actin as a control gene, RuANS gene encoding for anthocyanin synthase and RuMYB10 gene encoding for a transcription factor…involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in Rubus niveus. METHODS: To investigate the expression of the genes, the polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) was performed and the Qubit® fluorometry equipment for standard curve data. RESULTS: The ANOVA at 95% classified the genes into three homogeneous groups whose means are not statistically different in the gene expression, with an F = 0.46, a p = 0.6348. The results were generated in average: gene β-Actin: 174,65 ng/mL, which has greater concentration, followed by the RuMYB10 gene: 167.43 ng/mL and finally the gene RuANS with 163,55. CONCLUSIONS: The Rubus niveus specie presents a level of similar expression among the three analyzed genes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: It is questioned if Norwegian nurseries can compete with the continental nursery industry in an open market. OBJECTIVE: Investigated how quality of certified Norwegian strawberry transplants, developed and yielded from planting to first cropping year. METHODS: Plant qualities of Norwegian fresh and cold stored bare-root- and plug-plants of ‘Korona’ and ‘Sonata’ were examined for establishing and yield parameters in the open, after three intervals of planting. Fresh plug-plants were delivered when available. Trials were established at NIBIO Research Station Kvithamar, Norway. Growth and yield parameters were registered in the establishing and cropping years.…RESULTS: Plant establishment was poor in 2013 compared with 2014. Bare-root plants stored at 2–4°C generally developed poorly. Plug-plants established well at all delivery dates, except fresh plug in one year. Development of runner plants depended on plant type, cultivar and year. Plug- and bare-root-plants planted immediately after first delivery generally developed best crowns. Primary flower primordia reached a more developed stage for ‘Sonata’ than for ‘Korona’. Fruit yield of bare-root A15 and A13 was low in the establishing years. Plant-types differed in yield and fruit weight between cropping years. CONCLUSIONS: Bare-root and plug- plants planted one day after delivery generally yielded best. Storage of bare-root plants generally reduced yield. Fresh plug plants had low yield when planted late. Fruit yield of A15 and A13 in the establishing year was not satisfactory.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Higher consumption of phenolic-antioxidant rich berries have been associated with lower risks of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. In order to target for diet-based therapy it is important to screen and evaluate the right cultivars of berries with optimum phenolic antioxidants and associated anti-hyperglycemic functions. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to screen different rabbit-eye blueberry cultivars extracted in water and ethanol for their phenolic antioxidant-linked anti-diabetic properties using in vitro assays. Further impact of cultivars, growing seasons, and locations on targeted human health relevant bioactive profiles were also evaluated.…METHODS: Water and ethanol extracts of five rabbit-eye blueberry cultivars from two different locations and from two different growing seasons were evaluated for phenolic acids profile, total soluble phenolic content, total antioxidant activity, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities using model in vitro assays. RESULTS: Significant variations in phenolic antioxidant-linked anti-hyperglycemic functions were observed due to differences in genotypes, growing seasons, and locations. High phenolic antioxidant-linked anti-hyperglycemic functions were observed in Tiffblue, Brightwell, and Primier rabbit-eye blueberry cultivars and indicated anti-diabetic potential. CONCLUSION: Genotype×environment interactions are most critical factors which determined in vitro anti-diabetic relevant functionalities of blueberry bioactives.
Keywords: Antioxidants, blueberries, cultivars, phenolics, type 2 diabetes