Journal of Berry Research - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: OBJECT: Improved precision fertilization by introducing sensors and remote control to secure fruit yield and reduce nutrient leaching in soil culture. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We broadcasted before bedding and mulching 50 g m–2 of a multi-mineral fertilizer. Beds had two plant rows 20 cm apart, with plant distance of 25 cm. Experimental design was split plot with three replications and three treatments. Treatments: fertigation in large plots, cultivar in small plots and year. RESULTS: Plant development in the establishing year had no benefit of fertigation in addition to fertilizer given before bedding. When the yield is 3 kg…m–2 a nutrient solution of 6 g N m–2 gave highest yield, using 4 g m–2 from two weeks before harvest and during harvest. ‘Florence’ and ‘Sonata’ developed well; however, ‘Florence’ had mildew on fruits in the last cropping year. ‘Korona’ presented well the first cropping year, but grew small fruits heavily infested by mildew in the last cropping year. CONCLUSION: Fertilization had effect on fruit yield. It is discussed how a fertilization schedule for the establishment year and cropping years can be adapted to plant development stages. Mildew infestation on fruits was dependent of cultivar and fertilization. Introducing sensors for recording of growth factors and in situ ion-levels of soil water nutrients, proved valuable.
Keywords: Cultivar, fruit yield, ions, NBI, water, soil depth, leaching
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Berries such as Rubus has caught the attention of scientists and consumers because of their nutritional quality. Furthermore, the presence of phenolic compounds specifically anthocyanins have added potential of antiaging, anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant properties to the fruit. Gene expression studies have demonstrated the importance of flavonoids and their biosynthetic pathways, further increasing the research interests alternative and natural sources for these compounds. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to analyze the level of expression of β-Actin as a control gene, RuANS gene encoding for anthocyanin synthase and RuMYB10 gene encoding for a transcription factor…involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in Rubus niveus. METHODS: To investigate the expression of the genes, the polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) was performed and the Qubit® fluorometry equipment for standard curve data. RESULTS: The ANOVA at 95% classified the genes into three homogeneous groups whose means are not statistically different in the gene expression, with an F = 0.46, a p = 0.6348. The results were generated in average: gene β-Actin: 174,65 ng/mL, which has greater concentration, followed by the RuMYB10 gene: 167.43 ng/mL and finally the gene RuANS with 163,55. CONCLUSIONS: The Rubus niveus specie presents a level of similar expression among the three analyzed genes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Higher consumption of phenolic-antioxidant rich berries have been associated with lower risks of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. In order to target for diet-based therapy it is important to screen and evaluate the right cultivars of berries with optimum phenolic antioxidants and associated anti-hyperglycemic functions. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to screen different rabbit-eye blueberry cultivars extracted in water and ethanol for their phenolic antioxidant-linked anti-diabetic properties using in vitro assays. Further impact of cultivars, growing seasons, and locations on targeted human health relevant bioactive profiles were also evaluated.…METHODS: Water and ethanol extracts of five rabbit-eye blueberry cultivars from two different locations and from two different growing seasons were evaluated for phenolic acids profile, total soluble phenolic content, total antioxidant activity, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities using model in vitro assays. RESULTS: Significant variations in phenolic antioxidant-linked anti-hyperglycemic functions were observed due to differences in genotypes, growing seasons, and locations. High phenolic antioxidant-linked anti-hyperglycemic functions were observed in Tiffblue, Brightwell, and Primier rabbit-eye blueberry cultivars and indicated anti-diabetic potential. CONCLUSION: Genotype×environment interactions are most critical factors which determined in vitro anti-diabetic relevant functionalities of blueberry bioactives.
Keywords: Antioxidants, blueberries, cultivars, phenolics, type 2 diabetes
Abstract: BACKGROUND: It is questioned if Norwegian nurseries can compete with the continental nursery industry in an open market. OBJECTIVE: Investigated how quality of certified Norwegian strawberry transplants, developed and yielded from planting to first cropping year. METHODS: Plant qualities of Norwegian fresh and cold stored bare-root- and plug-plants of ‘Korona’ and ‘Sonata’ were examined for establishing and yield parameters in the open, after three intervals of planting. Fresh plug-plants were delivered when available. Trials were established at NIBIO Research Station Kvithamar, Norway. Growth and yield parameters were registered in the establishing and cropping years.…RESULTS: Plant establishment was poor in 2013 compared with 2014. Bare-root plants stored at 2–4°C generally developed poorly. Plug-plants established well at all delivery dates, except fresh plug in one year. Development of runner plants depended on plant type, cultivar and year. Plug- and bare-root-plants planted immediately after first delivery generally developed best crowns. Primary flower primordia reached a more developed stage for ‘Sonata’ than for ‘Korona’. Fruit yield of bare-root A15 and A13 was low in the establishing years. Plant-types differed in yield and fruit weight between cropping years. CONCLUSIONS: Bare-root and plug- plants planted one day after delivery generally yielded best. Storage of bare-root plants generally reduced yield. Fresh plug plants had low yield when planted late. Fruit yield of A15 and A13 in the establishing year was not satisfactory.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Myrtle berries have had a long history of application in the perfumery, cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical industries as well as being used for the industrial formulation of typical sweet liqueurs. However, no data is currently available on the metabolite composition and distribution in the different parts of the berry. OBJECTIVE: In the present study a metabolomics approach followed by multivariate data analysis and phytochemical characterization of (poly) phenolic metabolites, using liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry, was developed to identify novel markers in different parts of myrtle berries and to understand which part of…the fruit has the most influence on the metabolomics classification of berries, based on geographic origin of the plant and the cultivars. RESULTS: By using LC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS analysis, 35 compounds were tentatively identified on the base of their retention time, UV/Vis spectra, MS spectra and MS fragmentation patterns. 19 compounds, pertaining mainly to polyphenol compounds like flavonoids and to a new class of hydrolysable tannins, were detected and identified for the first time in these berries (mainly in seeds). CONCLUSIONS: by using multivariate statistical analysis, predictive classification models for authenticity and geographical origin, assessment was obtained. With this study, flavonoids and anthocyanins, mainly found in the peel and pulp of the myrtle berry, were recognized as putative marker compounds to assess the geographic origin of these berries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dielectric properties (DPs) are relevant parameters for microwave applications, such as sensors and heating for drying, mold control or disinfestation. DPs of berries are necessary in order to develop processes involving microwaves, reported with high potential for berries preservation. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the DPs in the microwave range and physicochemical properties of raspberry, strawberry and blackberry. METHODS: DPs were measured from 0.5 to 25 GHz at 20, 40 and 60°C using the open-ended coaxial probe method. Several physicochemical properties and biocompounds contents were determined. RESULTS: Dielectric constant increased with increasing temperature, and decreasing…with increasing frequency. Loss factor decreased with increasing temperature, and from 1.5 to 25 GHz, losses increased with increasing frequency. All berries had similar DP values, and microwaves had deeper penetration into strawberry (3.5 cm) than blackberry and raspberry samples (2.7 cm). CONCLUSIONS: Dielectric properties values are useful for further applications of microwaves for these berries, such as sensing, disinfestation, avoiding decay or drying.
Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) was the 12th and 11th most common cancer in men and women worldwide in 2012, with the highest incidence in North America and Europe and the lowest in Africa and Asia. Due to the lack of efficient early diagnosis and rapid disease progression, PDAC patients have a 5-year survival rate of just 5%. Epidemiological studies suggest that smoking, obesity, type II diabetes, and pancreatitis are common risk factors for PDAC development. By contrast, high intake of fresh fruit, vegetables, and nuts rich in phytochemicals could reduce PDAC risk. This review summarizes the human clinical studies that…have used berries or other natural products for chemoprevention of PDAC. Developing chemopreventive agents against PDAC would be tremendously valuable for the high-risk population and patients with premalignant lesions. Although some clinical trials of these agents have been completed, most are in early phases, and the results are not promising, which may be due to administration of the natural products at advanced stages of PDAC. Thus, further mechanistic studies using genetic animal models that recapitulate the tumor microenvironment and immunology of human PDAC would be informative for selecting an effective window for intervention with berries or other natural compounds.
Keywords: Berries, natural products, pancreatic cancer, human clinical trials, cancer immunology
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Visualization of ericoid mycorrhizal colonization using traditional methods relies on either fresh or KOH stored samples. Increasing interest in studying ericoid mycorrhization has highlighted a need for methods which can be used for preserved samples and are simple to implement with commonly available equipment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to improve on traditional techniques for staining ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and microscopically visualizing ericoid mycorrhizal roots which have been preserved. METHODS: Ericoid mycorrhizal roots were placed in KOH or frozen at – 20 °C for long-term storage. Traditional Trypan Blue staining methods were…modified to reduce damage to fine mycorrhizal hyphae and cortical cells. A high light-intensity dark-field microscopy technique was applied to clearly visualize stained mycorrhizae. The novel application was compared to other commonly used practices. RESULTS: Trypan Blue staining without KOH storage or clearing allowed for successful staining of ericoid mycorrhizal roots stored at – 20 °C. The application of high light-intensity dark-field microscopy provided high contrast visualization of mycorrhizal structures. CONCLUSIONS: The modified Trypan Blue staining method was effective on frozen root samples, with dark-field microscopy being particularly effective at visualizing dark colored roots. Advantages to this method are low cost and relatively fast application time. Therefore, this method is a realistic option for large scale analyses with many samples which require long-term preservation.
Keywords: Ericoid, mycorrhizae, dark-field microscopy, Trypan Blue staining, mycorrhizal colonization